Why You Need to Know About Epitalon

Epitalon can influence gene expression, extend telomere length, and produce other exciting physiological effects that have what experts call “geroprotective” results. It may be too soon to make definitive statements about epitalon but the findings so far certainly give a justification for further investigation.

Unless you have a scientific background, it’s unlikely you would have heard of epitalon, sometimes referred to as epithalon, epithalone, epithalamin, or epithalamine. If the promise indicated by certain studies on its anti-aging properties prove to be true, however, this synthetic peptide may become a household name.

Research indicates that epitalon is a telomerase activator, meaning it can stimulate telomere elongation. Much of what we know about epitalon comes from the work of Dr. Vladimir Khavinson and other researchers at the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology in Russia where it’s being developed as an anti-aging drug.

In this article, we’ll define what epitalon is and explore what scientists have discovered about its potential anti-aging benefits. But before delving into why scientists are so excited about the effect of epitalon on telomeres, let’s cover some basics about telomeres themselves.

The Link Between Telomeres and Aging

Telomeres cap the ends of our chromosomes and protect our genetic code during cell division. Each chromosome contains the genetic information necessary to keep all the cells in our body healthy and functioning at peak capacity. During cell division, those genes must be copied exactly so that the newly created cells have that same essential information. However, the process of replication always leaves off a small section from the ends of the DNA strands. That’s where telomeres come in. They’re placed at the ends to ensure no vital data gets left behind. Therefore, each time a cell divides, the telomeres capping its chromosomes get shorter. This makes telomere length the limiting factor for cellular division: when they become too short, the cell they’re attached to ceases to divide and enters senescence.

Studies indicate shortened telomeres may cause several adverse consequences of aging and age-related diseases, including increased oxidative stress, cancer, and overall mortality. Some experts have gone so far as to hypothesize that the shortening of telomeres may drive the entire aging process.

Understandably, this has drawn attention to telomere elongation as a possible method for preserving good health as we grow older. Stem cells—a subset of cells within the body with the ability to develop into different cell types (and in some instances, to repair injured tissues)—contain an enzyme called telomerase that keeps telomeres long, allowing those cells to replicate an infinite number of times.

Research indicates that providing the body with supplemental telomerase can indeed be an effective anti-aging treatment, however, it may have seriously deleterious side effects. That’s because cancer cells, like stem cells, rely on telomerase to maintain a ceaseless rate of replication. Experts in the field of gerontology, the multidisciplinary study of aging and the problems that can accompany it, have raised concerns that the use of exogenous telomerase could spur the development of cancer.

Epitalon may offer a way to lengthen telomeres without the same risks associated with the use of supplemental telomerase.

What Is Epitalon?

The discovery of epitalon, a tetrapeptide with the amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly, was a direct result of efforts to develop safe and effective methods for offsetting adverse effects of aging.

Scientists know that gene expression varies significantly with age, though there are numerous and conflicting explanations for why that might be. A simple and persuasive one goes like this: gene expression acts as a timer for the human life cycle. During our youth, we express genes that allow us to grow. During middle age, we express genes meant to keep us healthy. And when we reach old age, we begin to express genes that cause our cells to shut down.

Gene expression, on a cellular level, describes the translation of our DNA into proteins, the signaling mechanisms of the body. In the 1970s, Dr. Vladimir Anisimov, of the Department  of Carcinogenesis and Oncogerontology, N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology in St. Petersburg, and a frequent collaborator of Dr. Khavinson, began investigating the role of short peptides, which he ultimately learned function as epigenetic signals that both promote and repress the expression of whole categories of genes.

These short peptides, strings of fewer than 10 amino acids, can regulate the chemistry of the entire body. This capacity comes in part from the fact that their small size allows them to pass through the skin as well as through the blood-brain barrier. And unlike larger proteins, they tend to pass through the digestive tract intact.

In a review that synthesized a few decades of data, Anisimov shared the results of his investigation of the roles of small peptides isolated from different organs and tissues, such as the thymus gland and the pineal gland, on the mechanisms of aging. As part of his research, Anisimov also developed analogues of those peptide bioregulators, such as synthetic tetrapeptide epitalon.

The terms “epithalamin” and “epithalamine” typically refer to extracted peptide preparations, while “epitalon,” “epithalon,” and “epithalone” refer to synthetic peptide preparations. As epitalon has been shown to reproduce the effects of epithalamin, we will use that term throughout unless further specificity is required for clarity.

The long-term use of certain peptide preparations led to significantly increased longevity (mean lifespan increases between 20% and 40%) as well as a slower rate of age-associated alterations to biomarkers linked to physical and mental decline. Anisimov’s work also showed lower rates of spontaneous tumor incidence in subjects who received epitalon treatment, indicating that it has anti-carcinogenic effects.

We’ll dig into the specifics of some pioneering animal and human studies on epitalon in the following section, but first, let’s discuss why Anismov focused on the thymus and pineal gland.

How the Thymus and Pineal Gland Affect Your Health

The main function of the thymus, a gland in the upper region of the chest, is to teach the immune cells to differentiate between invading pathogens and the cells of the body. As we age, the size of the thymus decreases, which some have suggested could be the root cause of age-related decreases to immune function, resulting in higher incidences of infections and autoimmune diseases.

In the 1980s, the Slavic researchers whom we have to thank for the bulk of our knowledge about short peptides were focused on the possibilities of a thymic peptide bioregulator  called thymalin which they found could spur the thymus to re-grow, thus enhancing immune function. The use of thymalin also resulted in other desirable anti-aging benefits, such as:

Studies consistently linked thymalin treatment to decreased mortality rates too.

However, the heyday of thymalin was short-lived. In the early 1990s, researchers began focusing on the role the pineal gland plays in the aging process, specifically, its ability to modulate functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, which have been shown to decease with age.

Located in a region of the brain called the epithalamus, the pineal gland regulates the body’s sleep/wake cycle, a crucial task that involves the secretion of a hormone called melatonin. A significant moment in the progression of research in this field occurred when researchers used syngeneic transplantation to place pineal glands from young mice into the thymus of older mice, resulting in a prolonged lifespan. Concurrently, researchers were examining the effects of various pineal peptides. One such compound, epithalamin, was found to be a complex peptide bioregulator that could reduce the rate of cellular aging, leading to increased longevity.

Epithalamin, like thymalin, is a short peptide composed of a string of four amino acids. However, studies showed that it could increase longevity more consistently than thymalin, that it suppressed cancer growth, and that it even had a more pronounced effect on thymic growth.

In the early 2000s, excitement about epitalon increased even more when scientists found it could activate telomerase, leading to the regrowth of telomeres. It has now become the most-studied short peptide.

11 Essential Facts Everyone Should Know About Epitalon

Important Findings About the Benefits of Epitalon

The effects of epitalon have been examined in a variety of contexts: in vitro studies, animal studies, and human studies. Findings in all three realms have clearly and consistently indicated pronounced anti-aging benefits.

In Vitro Studies

The most significant work being done in vitro has to do with the effect of epitalon on telomerase activity. According to a 2003 study with Khavinson as the lead author, the addition of epitalon to a human somatic cell that did not naturally produce telomerase induced enzymatic telomerase activity, resulting in telomere elongation. They concluded that these findings indicate “the possibility of prolonging life span of a cell population and of the whole organism.”

In 2016, a St. Petersburg-based research team found that epitalon produced telomere elongation significant enough to allow cells to exceed the Hayflick limit, which describes the typical lifespan for a human cell.

Animal Studies

In 1998, Anisimov and Khavinson collaborated on a study that, as described in an article published by the The Longevity Research Institute (LRI), examined the effect of epithalamin, a pineal peptide preparation, on the lifespan of fruit flies, mice, and rats. They found that epithalamin led to a median lifespan extension of between 14% and 32% longer than control subjects. Interestingly, they also found indications that epithalamin decreased cancer risk.

The LRI article cited above shares further key findings from other studies on epithalamin. Female rats between the ages of 16 and 18 months receiving daily doses of 0.1 milligrams of pineal peptide extract had a 10% longer lifespan than control subjects per a study published in Experimentelle Pathologie. When the dose was increased to 0.5 milligrams, the rats lived 25% longer than controls. Female mice given a 0.5-milligram dose of epithalamin daily lived 31% longer than controls and had 50% fewer tumors, according to another study Anisimov and Khavinson worked on.

In 2002, a team from the Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, I. P. Pavlov St. Petersburg State Medical University collaborated with Anisimov and Khavinson to examine the effects of epitalon on chromosome aberrations related to aging. They found that the incidence of such aberrations decreased by between 17.9% and 30% compared to age-matched controls. The team concluded that these results point to an “antimutagenic effect,” which they hypothesize could be the source of epitalon’s geroprotective abilities. It’s worth noting, too, that the changes observed were consistent with increased telomere length.

Some skeptics have suggested that the lifespan extension benefits associated with various anti-aging treatments, such as epithalamin and epitalon, can more accurately be attributed to incidental food intake changes related to the way such treatments affect appetite. And indeed, fasting has been shown to have an impressive effect on lifespan.

In the case of epitalon specifically, studies with standardized food consumption have yielded the same findings related to longevity.

Take, for example a study published in Biogerontology in 2003Anisimov, Khavinson, and a team of seven other researchers from the Department of Carcinogenesis and Oncogerontology at the NN Petrov Research Institute of Oncology in St. Petersburg looked at the effects of epitalon on body weight, food consumption, and lifespan in female Swiss SHR mice. The researchers subcutaneously injected the mice in the treatment group with 1.0 microgram/mouse of epitalon on 5 consecutive days each month. The control group received saline injections on the same schedule. The results showed a 12.3% extension of maximum lifespan in comparison to the control group with no changes to food consumption or body weight.

Epitalon has been linked to benefits that, while relevant to those interested in remaining healthy and vital while they age, can be quite valuable for individuals of all ages.

A study published in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics in 2007 looked at the antioxidant properties of epitalon. The authors (Khavinson and two other Russian researchers) found that epitalon produced impressive antioxidant effects, and perhaps even more crucially, simultaneously stimulated the expression of additional antioxidant enzymes such as ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All in all, this translates to a major fortification of the body’s antioxidant defense system.

Anisimov joined forces with a team of scientists from the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Rehovot, Israel to examine the effect of epitalon on cancer growth. To do so, they injected 0.1-microgram doses of epitalon 5 times each week. They found this treatment decreased the number of malignant tumors and prevented the development of metastases. The long-term exposure to epitalon involved in the treatment protocol produced no adverse side effects.

Human Studies

Human studies have also yielded promising results. A randomized, controlled trial co-authored by Khavinson and a researcher named Vyacheslav G. Morozov and published in Neuroendocrinology Letters enrolled 94 women between the ages of 66 and 94, all of whom lived at the War Veterans Home in St. Petersburg. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the first received a placebo, the second a thymus extract called thymalin, the third epithalamin, and the fourth both thymalin and epithalamin.

Over the course of the 6-year study, 81.8% of the patients in the control group died, while only 41.7% of patients in the thymalin group and 45.8% of those in the epithalamin group, both of which received treatment for 2 years, died. And only a stunningly slight 20.0% of those in the group who received both epithalamin and thymalin for the full 6 years had died by the study’s conclusion. Further, the authors noted that participants who received epithalamin had lower rates of ischemic heart disease as well as improved levels of key biomarkers such as cortisol and insulin.

In 2006, Khavinson collaborated with lead author O.V. Korkushko of the Institute of Gerontology at the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in Kiev on a randomized clinical study done with human subjects. They set out to examine the effect of “pineal gland peptide preparation”—epithalamin—on elderly patients with accelerated aging of the cardiovascular system, and  found that long-term treatment with 50-milligram injections of epithalamin every 6 months for a duration of 12 years lead to decreased cardiovascular aging as well as decreased overall functional age. Epithalamin also improved participants’ exercise tolerance. Furthermore, mortality in the group that received epithalamin was 28% lower than in the control group.

In a review titled “Peptides, Genome, and Aging,” Khavinson states that treatment with both epitalon and epithalamin resulted in increased telomere lengths in the blood cells of patients between 60 and 65 years of age as well as 75 and 80 years of age. The efficacy of the two treatments proved to be equal.

As was the case for research done with animal subjects, human trials pointed to epitalon benefits desirable for individuals of all ages.

A 2011 collaboration between Korkushko, Khavinson, and two other researchers examined the effects of epitalon on elderly coronary patients. The team found that long-term treatment—meaning six courses over 3 years—resulted in numerous benefits, including:

  • Slowed rate of cardiovascular aging
  • Prevention of age-related declines to physical endurance
  • Rebalanced melatonin production and circadian rhythm
  • Normalized carbohydrate and fat metabolism

Patients also had lower rates of mortality than those in the control group who received basic therapy but no epitalon.

A 2013 study looked at the influence of epitalon on chromosome aberrations in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, as this disease is classified as one stemming from a genetic predisposition. Genome stability, or rather, instability, is one marker that can assist with the early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis. The researchers hoped that epitalon would have a corrective effect on the genome variability linked to the disease. Epitalon proved to have a potent protective effect—it reduced the frequency of aberrant cells for all subjects. However, it did not have a significant effect on chromosomal fragility that was already present.

Conclusion

The work of Dr. Vladimir Khavinson and other researchers, primarily based in Russia and Ukraine, indicate that epitalon has immense promise as an anti-aging drug. This promise has to do with epitalon’s ability to influence gene expression, extend telomere length, and other exciting physiological effects that have what experts call “geroprotective” results.

Little research has yet been conducted on epitalon by researchers without ties to Russian institutions, so it may be too soon to make definitive statements about epitalon, but the findings so far certainly give a justification for further investigation.

The Best Multivitamin for Over-50 Adults: Top 13 Multivitamins for Men and Women

What is the best multivitamin for over-50 adults? Here’s our recommendations on the top five brands for men and women, plus three unisex products with key features like affordability and minimal drug interactions.

As we age, our bodies naturally change and mature, and so do our nutrient needs. This article has the top 13 options for the best multivitamin for over-50 adults, those designed for men specifically, those attuned to women, and a few unisex dietary supplements with special features for the health requirements and concerns of mature adults.

Nutrients and Food Over 50

Our bodies change with every year, and certainly every decade. Children can eat anything and seemingly never run out of youthful energy, but after the age of 25 absorption rates start to change, cell creation begins to slow, metabolisms wind down (including those lesser-known silent metabolic processes like autophagy), and suddenly our essential nutrient needs have shifted.

Most people don’t notice this shift in their 20s, but as we move into our 30s and 40s, we begin to notice that some injuries just don’t heal as quickly as they used to, and little aches and pains start to become chronic and long-lasting.

As we grow older, conditions related to unhealthy diet and lifestyle choices start to manifest, and by 50 it’s more important than ever to take control of diet and fitness when conditions like heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and obesity can still be reversed or avoided and there’s still plenty of time to go from sedentary to stacked with the right motivation and nutritional support.

Doctors and experts are always trying to dispel myths about aging, especially to patients who think that getting older means it’s too late to make changes, that the damage has already been done. That’s just not true: we’re never too old to improve, to feel better, move better, and eat better.

There’s also so much misinformation out there, it’s easy to go down the wrong diet path. For instance, some people think that once their metabolism has slowed they should eat less. But men and women over 50 often need more nutrition coming in to make up for lower rates of absorption than they had in their youths.

As we age, our bodies have a harder time absorbing zinc, iron, vitamin B12, and calcium, which is part of the reason why older people experience higher rates of bone loss and muscle weakness. As we age, we also don’t spend as much time outside in the sun, moving, playing, or walking. The sunshine vitamin, vitamin D, is needed for calcium absorption. But vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the United States according to the National Institutes of Health, affecting up to an estimated 42% of adults.

Your doctor can tell you if you’re missing key nutrients in your bloodwork, and may recommend taking fish oil for omega-3 fatty acids or vitamin D3 and calcium supplements to make up for some of these deficiencies. Instead of getting these essential vitamins piecemeal however, many find it more convenient to take a once-daily multivitamin, which is why we’ve compiled the best vitamins available to promote strong bones and healthy longevity.

Best multivitamin for 50+ men and women.

Best Multivitamin for Men over 50: Top 5 Picks

Here are formulas developed for men’s prostate health, blood pressure support, and body vitality.

1. Rainbow Light Men’s One

This comprehensive men’s multivitamin has strong mineral content with zinc and selenium, along with an extensive vitamin profile (vitamins A, B, C, D3, and E), all derived from real food and plant extracts like beets, kale, dandelion, and spinach. With no artificial ingredients and developed to support sexual and cardiovascular health, this multi’s high price point may be worth it to those in search of a much-needed energy boost. The price is especially worth it if it helps you avoid heart disease, the leading cause of death for men and women worldwide.

2. One A Day Men’s 50+ Health Advantage

If cost is a real concern, this One A Day option may be preferred. With a formulation designed for men, this supplement has the recommended daily value of vitamin D for healthy bone support and vitamin B6 for heart health. With just one tablet per day (as the name suggests), men can cover a wide swath of their nutritional needs with a simple, affordable multivitamin.

3. Garden of Life’s Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Men

For vegetarian men, Garden of Life has designed a multivitamin with nutrients derived from whole foods that has been third-party tested to guarantee its effectiveness. With gummy vitamin options and formulas for men aged 40 and 55+ in years, here’s a non-GMO raw foods option for all men, including those in need of a dairy- and gluten-free multivitamin, or those interested in adding probiotics to their daily multivitamin along with the standard vitamin E, zinc, and selenium included for prostate support.

4. Centrum Silver Men Multivitamin

Gluten-free and non-GMO, this multivitamin is designed with mature men in mind. With folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, it supports brain function and eye health along with heart and blood cell strength. Some consumers have found the pills too large to swallow and notice stomach upset when taken on an empty stomach. (Skip to the end section on unisex multivitamins for a powdered vitamin option if swallowing pills or capsules of any kind is an issue.)

5. Vimerson Health’s Men’s Daily Multivitamin Supplement

Another affordable option, Vimerson’s daily multivitamin has vitamin A and lutein to help combat age-related eyesight decline and night blindness, plus B vitamins and spirulina for benefits that include healthy weight management and cholesterol and blood sugar control. And it’s made without sugar, dairy, or soy. The recommended dose of this supplement is two capsules with breakfast each morning.

Best Multivitamin for Women over 50: Top 5 Picks

Here are the top selections for women’s multivitamins, designed for bone strength and hormonal support for menopause on top of the usual dietary needs common among all older adults.

1. One A Day Women’s 50+ Healthy Advantage

As popular among women as men, the One A Day formula includes vitamin B6 for increased energy and an extra boost of calcium for women’s bone health. Women suffer from osteoporosis at higher rates than men, especially those women who’ve been pregnant. One A Day also offers a specific formula for menopause for those whose symptoms are lengthy through the perimenopause stage and the full transition to post-menopausal health.

2. Nature’s Way Alive! Women’s 50+ Premium Gummy Multivitamin

This gummy multivitamin option is great for those who can’t (or just plain don’t want to) swallow large capsules or pills. With whole food-derived nutrients, these gummies amazingly contain no gelatin, artificial preservatives or flavors, but they do have sweeteners from tapioca syrup and cane sugar to make them better-tasting than the average vitamin. Plus, they’re full of vitamin D, lutein, high-potency vitamin B12, and more.

3. New Chapter’s Every Woman’s One Daily 55+

While some women find swallowing large pills difficult or uncomfortable, others find dropping all their vitamins onto a sensitive stomach at once to be untenable. That is where New Chapter’s gentle formula shines. It’s a multivitamin easy enough to take on an empty stomach and ideal for those with gastrointestinal issues or inflammatory conditions of the digestive tract. With plenty of vitamin C for immune system strength and B vitamins for energy, this organic formula will ease you comfortably to better health.

4. Garden of Life’s Vitamin Code 50 & Wiser Women

Focused on breast health and free of fillers and binders, this Garden of Life formula is gluten free, dairy free, soy free, and vegan, and comes in capsules that can be opened and mixed with other substances if swallowing capsules is undesirable. Intended to be taken twice a day (two capsules at a time for a total of four doses), the live enzymes and probiotics in this formula may be the exact right daily multivitamin for you.

5. Centrum Silver Women

Affordable and comprehensive, this gluten-free, non-GMO multivitamin has a smooth coating for better ease in swallowing, and contains B vitamins for heart and brain health, vitamin D for bone health, and lutein and vitamins A and E for eye health.

Best Unisex Multivitamins for Healthy Aging

Here are multivitamin products designed more generally for mature adults, but with special features that may sell either men or women on their formulas.

1. Rainbow Light 50+ Mini-Tablet

One of the best features of this small, easy-to-swallow multivitamin designed for men and women is that it doesn’t contain vitamin K, which causes issues with many blood-thinning medications. There’s also no iodine, which can cause problems for those with thyroid conditions, and no PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid), which can interfere with antibiotics. When it comes to avoiding harmful side effects, it’s the nutrients which aren’t in your multivitamin that matter.

2. Seeking Health’s Optimal Multivitamin Powder

Troubles with swallowing disappear with a multivitamin designed and delivered in powdered form. With the same vitamin C, E, and D that’s found in all the others on our list, this mix also comes with choline and boron, but without copper for those who may have elevated copper levels.

3. Kirkland Signature’s Adult 50+ Mature Multi

Designed to support healthy aging and with good amounts of vitamin D and vitamin B12, this incredibly affordable and popular option, with calcium for bone and teeth strength, can be found at Costco and Amazon online.

A+ Aging for 50+ Adults

Your body changes as you age, as do your essential nutrition requirements. Choose your multivitamin depending on your personal health concerns and nutrient needs. We hope you find the one that suits you and your lifestyle perfectly on this list!

The Reverse-Aging Diet: Is Autophagy the Key to Staying Young?

By using autophagy fasting techniques and nutritionally superior foods, you can reverse certain aspects of aging and recover your rightful vitality. Here’s what you need to know about the reverse-aging diet.

The reverse-aging diet is also known as “eating for autophagy,” but what does that mean for you? Autophagy is a biological process that allows the body to recycle aging or dying cells to synthesize new and better ones. It’s not exactly like a keto or paleo diet where you can just know what not to eat and carry on—there’s a timing aspect to autophagic eating, as well as specific foods that have their own anti-aging strengths. We’ll cover both aspects of the reverse-aging diet here.

What Is Autophagy and How Does It Reverse Aging?

The body’s autophagy process was discovered in the 1950s and ’60s accidentally by Christian de Duve, a Belgian scientist who was studying insulin at the time. He named the process after the Greek words for “self” (auto) and “eating” (phagy), because in a sense that is what it entails: the body sends cells around to cannibalize the useful parts of dying cells, or to eat up the garbage byproduct of normal cell functioning, and uses those pieces to repair or replace dying cells with stronger cells. It’s like a molecular version of recycling and up-cycling material that would otherwise be clogging up the streets.

Scientific understanding of autophagy didn’t advance again until the 1970s and ’80s, when another Nobel prize-winning scientist, Yoshinori Ohsumi, discovered the genes that regulate the autophagic response. It was ultimately determined that, just as with all the other processes in the body, autophagy starts to decline with age. Autophagy on decline is sort of like having a broken garbage disposal and leaving leftover food bits in your sink: eventually this will gum up the works.

And yet, just as it’s possible to get your garbage and recycling habits back in working order, it’s also possible to trigger autophagy even as you age and the process naturally slows. By using diet to manipulate a “stress response” in the body, you can essentially assign cleaning days to your cells, the same way you might when creating a chore chart for a busy family: some days are for cleaning and some days are for more thoroughly enjoying life in a clean house.

Long story short, by using intermittent fasting practices and eating key nutritional foods, you can regularly bring autophagy out of a sluggish maintenance mode and make sure the cellular garbage in your body doesn’t overwhelm healthy functioning and lead to symptoms of aging.

Autophagy Fasting: How Does It Work?

Autophagy is actually part of some diets like keto and Atkins, diets that carefully put the body into a small nutritional crisis to manipulate healthy results. By inhibiting carbohydrate intake for example, the body becomes alarmed enough to start burning fat stores for energy. Usually the body guards these fat stores like piles of emergency gold in case of famine, but in a modern, First World context, famine is way less of a threat, while obesity contributes to more and more preventable deaths each year.

If you want to fast in a way that triggers autophagic metabolism and slows down the aging process, follow these basic steps:

  • Eat all of your meals within an 8-hour window. You still need your essential nutrients, but you want your body to spend some energy cleaning up rather than digesting and functioning all the time. For the best foods to eat for autophagy, read on to the next section.
  • Fast between 16 and 28 hours intermittently. Periods of nutrient deprivation trigger autophagy. The reason intermittent fasting works is that it triggers the sort of secondary metabolisms we evolved to survive in harsh climates, but it does so in small windows of time without actually starving us.
  • Sustain yourself and your energy with exogenous ketones. While fasting, water, tea, and black coffee are acceptable to consume. If you choose to add MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides from coconut oil) to your drink, your body will have just enough energy to function and feel satiated without interrupting your fasting goals for weight loss or cellular clean-up.

Autophagy is also triggered by vigorous exercise routines, like HIIT workouts (high-intensity interval training), which, much like intermittent fasting, utilize small windows of high stress to elicit the biological responses we need to stay young and healthy. Modern life is often too safe and sedentary, and our survival mechanisms get weak from lack of use. Autophagy reminds our bodies that each day is still a matter of life and death.

What Is Autophagy and How Does It Reverse Aging

The Reverse-Aging Diet: Which Foods Keep the Body Young?

You’ll want to start by reducing (not eliminating) carbs. Eating more low carb starts inching your body towards ketosis, with the beneficial side effect of losing body fat and weight. In addition to lowering carb intake, you’ll want to consume nutrient-dense foods with compounds that contribute directly to the body’s anti-aging efforts.

Green Tea and Matcha Powder

Green tea has become nearly synonymous with longevity, so much so that statistically the more green tea you consume regularly, the longer you live. This is why it’s a staple in almost every anti-aging diet. Green tea and matcha powder (ground green tea leaves) contain polyphenols that help reduce the inflammation caused by free radical toxins. And catechins in green tea can help prevent the effects on sun damage and the appearance of fine lines when used topically in skincare products.

Kale and Leafy Greens

Cruciferous vegetables and leafy greens are rightly considered superfoods. Kale, broccoli and broccoli greens, spinach, Brussels sprouts—all of these lean greens contain hefty amounts of vitamin K, lutein, fiber, and phytochemicals that help reduce the risk of cancer and guard against the oxidative damage of free radicals. Their vitamin A content contributes to healthy, youthful skin and wound repair, while their vitamin C content serves as a precursor to collagen and new skin cell production. Plus, vitamin C acts as an antioxidant so powerful it helps prevent cold and flu infections. The vitamins and minerals in leafy greens are some of the best anti-aging nutrients to be found.

Walnuts and Almonds

Most nuts contain valuable amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and plant-based protein, but that isn’t the end of their value as anti-aging food. Walnuts in particular may extend life for up to 3 years, possibly by reducing the risk factors for cancer and heart disease. And almonds are full of vitamins A, B, and E, healthy fats, and antioxidants that belong in every healthy diet to help reduce inflammation from the skin to within.

Seeds

Just about any seed that isn’t poisonous is good for you, from chia to sunflower to flaxseeds. Ask any dietitian or nutritionist if you’re eating enough seeds, and the answer will likely be a resounding “no!” Most of us in the modern world don’t consume seeds nearly as much as we’re evolved to. In fact, we have intentionally engineered seedless foods like watermelon and bananas just to avoid what we should be consuming regularly.

Chia seeds are sources of water-soluble fiber that swells with liquid and helps slow down digestion and keep blood sugar levels from spiking. They are anti-inflammatory, full of omega-3s, and contain all nine essential amino acids necessary for new muscle growth at all stages of life.

These features can be found in flaxseeds as well, which have anti-aging nutrients for your skin and flavonoids known to help lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, improving the ratio between “good” HDL levels and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. If you enjoy a good trail mix with sunflower seeds, you’re also fortifying your body with vitamin E, an antioxidant that can help protect against the sun’s UV rays.

Oily, Fatty Fish

Eating the proper ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids is necessary for optimal health. While both fatty acids are essential, the standard Western diet overemphasizes omega-6 fatty foods (they’re in vegetable oils, which infiltrate our foods as additives), and downplays omega-3s, which are found in abundance in oily fish like salmon, sardines, and mackerel.

Omega-3 fatty acids help lower inflammation, and subsequently rates of dementia, heart disease, and arthritis. Salmon is abundant in astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant that defends against aging. And heart-healthy sardines can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Sardines have the added advantage of being on the bottom of the food chain, meaning they are less likely to contain toxins they themselves have consumed (as may be the case with larger fish, which have higher mercury levels).

Access to fresh fish is not always easy to come by or affordable for those who live far inland. Luckily a fish oil supplement is easy to find and can help improve your joint health as well.

Fermented Foods

Fermented veggies like kimchi and sauerkraut along with fermented dairy products like kefir and Greek yogurt carry healthy probiotic bacteria. While prebiotic foods contain fiber for your existing good gut bacteria to digest, probiotic foods introduce new live cultures of beneficial gut bacteria to support healthy digestion, detox efforts, and immune system functioning.

Sweet Potatoes

Don’t just pull out sweet potatoes for your fall menu. These spuds are some of the healthiest carbs around. As we pointed out at the top of this list, while it’s good to lower your intake of carbs (and the fast sugars that come with them), it’s not recommended to eliminate carbs entirely. Carbohydrates in fruits, starchy veggies, and foods like sweet potatoes can provide many beneficial nutrients. Particularly the skin of sweet potatoes contains concentrations of the anti-cancer compound anthocyanin, another valuable asset to staying young and healthy.

Red Wine and Dark Chocolate

Treats like red wine and dark chocolate contain useful nutrients too, specifically resveratrol, an anti-aging antioxidant. Consumed in moderation, the nutrients in the grapes that make red wine and the cacao nibs that make up the majority of dark chocolate provide protection against the age-accelerating damage of free radicals.

Mushrooms

It’s strange but true: while mushrooms are grown in dampness and dark, if you place them in sunlight after harvesting, they soak up vitamin D from the sun just like human skin does. In fact, they soak up so much that 3.5 ounces of mushrooms can provide you 130-450 IUs of vitamin D you need, so you don’t have to spend so much time in the sun or suffer the signs of aging that can come from sun damage.

Dark Berries and Fruits

Raspberries, blueberries, and pomegranates have deep coloring in common, as well as certain antioxidant concentrations that can greatly benefit your health. Pomegranates have enjoyed a recent hey-day as a superfood, but dark berries like blue and blackberries bring the same level of nutrition to every smoothie, yogurt, or dessert that includes them. These fruits’ concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the antioxidant anthocyanin all work to help prevent chronic conditions from gaining a foothold. They also help increase collagen production for more supple, youthful skin.

Avocados

Avocados are one of the most well-known and versatile healthy fats in a low-carb dieter’s kitchen. Delicious and creamy, they can be eaten as a veggie dip, utilized as a healthy spread, and turned into smoothies and dairy-free ice creams, all while providing you with vitamin A that protects your skin cells and omega-3 fatty acids that help your heart.

Carrots

Famous for improving eye health thanks to their beta-carotene content, carrots do even more to help preserve your youth and vitality. One study found a correlation between carotenoid consumption and romantic appeal and attraction. And if it’s health effects you’re after, the vitamin A in carrots protects your skin from viruses, bacteria, and the potential ravages of aging.

Turmeric

Speaking of brilliantly orange foods, turmeric and its active compound curcumin are famous natural remedies for inflammation, helping to ameliorate significant inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Time and time again, in study after study, turmeric exhibits proven pain-relieving attributes and anti-inflammatory capabilities. So if you’re looking to reverse aging with diet, you definitely want to pepper turmeric into your food routine. Add a dash of black pepper to increase bioavailability!

Tomatoes

The tomato is a fruit used in culinary capacities as a vegetable, but no matter how you slice it, the lycopene content inside tomatoes provides valuable disease resistance, specifically against osteoporosis, which affects 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50. Along with the health benefits of lycopene, tomatoes provide B vitamins like niacin and folate, vitamin C, and vitamin K. Here’s a pro-tip for eating: add a little olive oil to help increase the nutrient absorption in your body.

Beets

Last but not least, maybe it’s appropriate that beets have the approximate shape of a heart, because the nitrates they contain help improve arterial health and blood pressure, as well as help reduce inflammation like so many other anti-aging foods on this list. The nitric oxide content also helps protect your kidneys, and the rich color of beets makes for a beautiful presentation whether in a smoothie or on your plate.

Aging Can Be Reversed

While you can’t turn back time, you can reverse the symptoms of aging that come from the slow-down of processes like autophagy. With the right supplies in your diet and an active lifestyle, you can easily be in better shape at 60 than you were at 30, when, in the brazenness of youth, many people don’t take proper care of themselves. Damage done by poor diets or unhealthy lifestyles can be reversed, and the more you know about how to best strengthen your body, the better prepared you are to improve with age.

Amino Acids for Hearing Loss: Understanding the Vital Role Certain Amino Acids Play

Chances are, when you think about protecting your hearing health, nutrition isn’t the first thing that comes to mind. But maybe it should be. Here’s how nutrient intake, specifically of certain key amino acids, impacts hearing health.

Though nutrition may not be the first thing that comes to mind when you consider your hearing health, researchers working in the field of nutrient science have found that certain vitamins, minerals, and amino acids can be quite impactful. Before delving into what scientists have uncovered so far about amino acids for hearing loss, we’ll first review some fundamental facts about hearing loss.

Basic Facts About Hearing Loss

Hearing loss occurs when part of the ear or overall auditory system malfunctions. Possible sites where malfunctions might occur include:

  • Hair cells of the inner ear
  • Organ of corti
  • Spiral ganglion
  • Stria vascularis
  • Auditory brainstem

Hearing loss has degrees of severity ranging from mild, which limits a person’s ability to hear soft sounds, to profound, which prevents a person from hearing anything but very loud sounds.

Normal hearing is defined as hearing thresholds of 25 decibels (dB) or better in both ears. Any individual who does not meet that criteria technically has some degree of hearing loss. The colloquial phrase “hard of hearing” applies to individuals with mild, moderate, and severe hearing loss. Typically, those individuals can communicate through spoken language, though they may find hearing aids, cochlear implants, captioning, and other interventions useful.

Those who identify as deaf most likely have profound hearing loss. Because they can hear very few, or no, sounds, it’s common for deaf individuals to use sign language to communicate.

According to a fact sheet compiled by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), more than 2 out of every 1,000 children born in the United States annually have detectable hearing loss in one or both ears. Hearing tests show that 13% of people over the age of 12 who live in the United States have hearing loss in both ears. Furthermore, 37.5 millions adults living in the United States experience some level of hearing loss.

As individuals grow older, their odds of experiencing hearing impairment increase. In fact, age is the single most significant predictor of hearing loss for adults between the ages of 20 and 69—the highest rates of hearing loss occur among those in the 60 to 69-year-old age bracket.

Sex affects your odds of experiencing hearing loss too. Men have nearly twice the risk women do of developing hearing loss. And race seems to play a role as well, with non-Hispanic white adults reporting higher rates of hearing loss than other racial and ethnic groups.

It’s common for age-related hearing loss to become increasingly severe. Approximately 2% of adults between the ages of 45 and 54 have hearing loss significant enough to be considered disabling, meaning “hearing loss of 35 decibels or more in the better ear, the level at which adults could generally benefit from hearing aids.” That rate rises to 8.5% for adults between the ages of 55 and 64. By age 65 nearly a quarter of adults could benefit from hearing aids, and by 75, more than half could.

Unfortunately, very few of the people for whom hearing aids could be helpful actually use them. Only one in three adults 70 and older with significant hearing loss have used hearing aids.

7 Quick Facts About Hearing Loss

Probing the Link Between Nutrition and Hearing Health

Though some studies on nutrition and hearing health were conducted as early as the 1930s and 40s, it took until the late 1980s for researchers to clearly state that diet plays a role in the development of certain hearing disorders. Now, scientists have conclusively determined that insufficient dietary intake of certain nutrients, including amino acids, can cause hearing loss.

These findings stem largely from population-based studies as well as trials done with animal subjects. A study done by Saudi Arabian researchers, for example, looked at whether dietary deficiencies of certain amino acids correlated to hearing impairment among 18 to 21 year olds.

The authors used a food questionnaire to determine the dietary habits of study participants—with a focus on amino acid intake—in combination with other survey questions. They also reviewed existing literature and findings on the beneficial impact amino acids can have on hearing health.

First, they looked at arginine, a conditionally essential amino acid known for its blood pressure and protein synthesis benefits. “Studies have indicated that arginine is protective against sensorineural hearing loss,” the authors note, as well as “cochlear damage caused by the toxins that are produced in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections.” Evidence supports the use of arginine as a preventative treatment in order to provide cochlea protection.

They also address the role played by methionine, an essential amino acid with powerful antioxidant properties. This amino acid has been shown to lower a person’s risk of ototoxic hearing loss, which occurs as a result of the ingestion of chemicals, including those found in some medications, that cause damage to the inner ear.

The authors mention, too, that deficiencies of methionine may produce hearing loss. They reference an epidemic of peripheral neuropathy in Cuba from 1992-1993 that affected over 50,000 people, some of whom developed high-frequency sensorineural deafness. “Obvious malnutrition was not present,” the authors wrote, “but a deficit in micronutrients including methionine appeared to be a primary determinant of the epidemic.”

They also reference the ability of glutathione, a free-radical scavenging antioxidant made up of three amino acids (L-cysteine, glycine, and L-glutamate), to reduce your risk of developing hearing loss caused by acoustic overstimulation, or noise exposure. “A depleted glutathione state increased noise-induced hearing loss, whereas replenishment of glutathione lessened the damage,” they explained. Furthermore, glutathione can protect against ototoxic hearing loss caused by gentamicin, particularly for individuals whose diets contain low levels of protein.

Last but certainly not least, they touch on the important role played by taurine, another conditionally essential amino acid. Taurine appears to make vital contributions to the development of human hearing capacities, both anatomically and functionally. “Infants with inadequate taurine in their diets had shorter auditory brain stem responses,” the authors stated. And animal studies have shown that supplementing with taurine encourages the brainstem auditory response to mature earlier.

Further Findings on Amino Acids for Hearing Loss

Taurine may hold particular promise as a means of treating tinnitus, a hearing malfunction that impacts approximately 10% of adults living in the United States. Neuroscientists at the University of California, Berkeley published findings in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences indicating a correlation between tinnitus and decreased levels of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The team concluded that finding ways to change GABA functions could help to treat tinnitus, and taurine could be one possible route for doing so.

A separate study published in Hearing Research examined how daily taurine supplementation impacted chronic tinnitus in rats. Rats given a high dose of taurine—294 mg/kg—showed significantly reduced symptoms of tinnitus. “These results are consistent with the hypothesis that taurine attenuates tinnitus and improves auditory discrimination by increasing inhibitory tone and decreasing noise in the auditory pathway,” the authors concluded.

The connection between amino acids and hearing health appears to be intimately intertwined with the way amino acids influence neurotransmitter levels. A review published in Neural Regeneration Research offers perspective on this issue as it applies to glutamate and glycine. “Glutamate is well established as an excitatory neurotransmitter of auditory nerve fibers,” the authors explained, and likely other ascending auditory pathways as well. Glycine, meanwhile, acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system.

How to Use Amino Acids to Maximize Hearing Health

Your particular hearing concerns will determine which amino acids you’ll want to seek out in order to maximize your hearing health. The following overview of the links between certain amino acids and auditory functions can help you build a personalized diet and supplement plan.

Arginine

Evidence shows that arginine, a conditionally essential amino acid, helps protect against sensorineural hearing loss,  which accounts for about 90% of all cases of hearing loss. Arginine can also prevent cochlear damage resulting from illnesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sinus and ear infections.

Foods high in arginine include:

  • Chicken
  • Dairy products
  • Lentils
  • Turkey
  • Soybeans
  • Spirulina

Carnitine

Carnitine, an amino acid already quite popular for its anti-aging impact, appears to have a positive impact on hearing loss related to brain stem auditory deficits caused by diabetes. It may also increase hearing health for older individuals.

Experts advise supplementing with acetyl-L-carnitine because the body absorbs it more readily and it facilitates the transportation of fatty acids to the mitochondria of inner ear cells, a crucial step for energy production.

Cysteine

This nonessential, sulfur-containing amino acid plays a number of important roles related to your hearing. First, it safeguards the function of inner ear cells and second, it acts as a precursor for glutathione, another amino acid relevant to hearing health.

Evidence indicates that when individuals supplement with n-acetyl-cysteine, they’re unaffected by noise levels sufficient to cause permanent hearing damage in other individuals. Plus, it can counteract the negative effects certain medications and cancer treatments have on your hearing, including cisplatin.

Glutathione

Deficiencies of glutathione (an antioxidant composed of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate) make individuals more susceptible to hearing loss following noise exposure. Those already experiencing this type of hearing loss can mitigate the damage by supplementing with glutathione. Glutathione also prevents gentamicin from harming the cochlear.

As we age, our glutathione levels decrease sharply. This can be particularly dramatic in the auditory nerve, raising the question of whether age-related hearing loss might be caused in part by dropping glutathione levels.

Histidine

Our bodies need histidine, an essential amino acid, to maintain the protective myelin sheaths that surround our nerves. Histidine deficiencies can contribute to nerve deafness as well as other types of hearing loss.

Methionine

Methionine keeps auditory hair cells as well as auditory neurons safe from ototoxicity, particularly from aminoglycosides, ionic platinum compounds, and cisplatin. However, this amino acid plays somewhat of a dual role in hearing health as it’s a precursor to homocysteine. Excess levels of homocysteine may obstruct blood flow to the inner ear.

If you increase your methionine intake, be sure to maintain optimal levels of folic acid as well as vitamins B6 and B12 to keep your homocysteine levels in check.

Taurine

As addressed in some detail previously, humans need taurine to develop brainstem auditory responses. There’s also some indication that this amino acid could be used to treat tinnitus.

Dietary taurine comes primarily from red meat, poultry, and fish, so vegetarians and vegans may need to pay particular attention to sourcing this crucial nutrient.

Use These 7 Amino Acids to Prevent and Treat Hearing Loss

Liver Failure Death: Causes, Symptoms and Stages

What are the causes and symptoms of acute and chronic liver failure? How is liver damage diagnosed? Prevented? What are the stages that lead to liver failure death? Find out here.

The human liver is one of our most vital organs, responsible for filtering our blood and detoxifying our bodies. Without a functioning liver, we first become jaundiced, and after a certain point, we can no longer stay alive without liver transplantation. Any issue with liver function is a life-threatening healthcare emergency. So come with us as we explore the leading causes of liver damage and the progressive stages of liver failure death.

What Causes Liver Failure Death?

Cirrhosis is late-stage scarring of the liver (fibrosis). According to those who study hepatology, the most common causes of cirrhosis in the United States are due to hepatitis C infections and heavy alcohol consumption. These chronic liver diseases not only affect one’s quality of life, but can also lead to the end of life.

However, there are other causes of acute liver failure that have a much faster onset, such as drug or toxin overdoses. Genetics are also among the risk factors that can contribute to liver damage and disease, as are obesity, autoimmune disorders, and various forms of cancer.

Liver failure death: causes, symptoms, and stages.

Causes and Symptoms of Acute Liver Failure

Acute liver failure is a rapid decline of liver function caused by:

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose
  • Viral hepatitis infections (hepatitis A, B, and E)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Adverse reactions to medications for epilepsy, antibiotics, or even nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Adverse reactions to herbal supplements like kava (a nightshade plant) or ma huang (ephedra)
  • Wilson’s disease (a rare genetic disorder that causes copper buildup and poisoning)
  • Hepatic vein thrombosis (also known as Budd-Chiari syndrome)
  • Exposure to toxins like poisonous mushrooms or industrial chemicals

The symptoms of acute liver failure include:

  • General malaise or a feeling of unwellness
  • Persistent tiredness, drowsiness, or sleepiness
  • Confusion or disorientation
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or swelling
  • Jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes or skin)

Causes and Symptoms of Chronic Liver Failure

Chronic liver failure is characterized by long-term progressive damage from the following causes:

The symptoms of chronic liver failure and breakdown could entail:

  • Persistent fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Jaundice of the eyes or skin
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Severely itchy skin
  • Darkening of the urine
  • Fluid buildup in the arms or legs (edema)
  • Fluid buildup in the abdomen (ascites)

The Symptoms of Liver Cancer

Cancer that develops in the liver (referred to as primary liver cancer) could also be the cause of liver failure. Those with cirrhosis (the third stage of liver failure) are more at risk of developing liver cancer, which could then shut down the organ or spread to the rest of the body. Liver cancer symptoms could include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • Itchy skin
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Abdominal pain or swelling

The Stages of Liver Failure

Liver failure and liver disease are two different things, but one of them can cause the other. Liver disease encompasses any ongoing condition that damages the liver, including inflammation and infection. Liver failure occurs when the liver loses a portion or the entirety of its functionality.

Damage to the liver can come in stages, creating a systematic shutdown of the body and requiring end of life care from health care professionals. What follows are the details of those various stages.

1. Inflammation of the Liver

Inflammation of the liver is often the beginning of the damage that can ultimately lead to a person’s death. Not everyone will notice or feel when their liver becomes inflamed or enlarged, and if the inflammation continues unabated, permanent injury or scarring could occur, leading to the next stage of liver failure.

2. Fibrosis of the Liver

Fibrosis is liver scarring. While the liver is one of the most unique organs thanks to its ability to heal itself (unlike the heart muscle), long-term damage from repeated intoxication or uncured or incurable infections can still build up. When scar tissue begins to take the place of healthy and functional liver tissue, it diminishes the liver’s ability to function. Again, this progressive damage is not always detectable, and the longer it persists, the more it affects the individual’s survival rate.

3. Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is characterized by severe scarring of the liver. When the damaged tissue accumulates enough to interrupt liver functioning, it puts your health in serious jeopardy. When scarring starts to outnumber and overwhelm healthy tissue, the liver begins to fail. Sometimes this stage is the first one that presents symptoms noticeable by the individual, including jaundice, dry mouth, muscle cramps, increased ease of bleeding, buildup of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), peripheral edema, and reduced brain functioning (hepatic encephalopathy).

4. End-Stage Liver Disease

Those with end-stage or advanced liver disease require palliative care and may be placed on a waiting list for a liver transplant by their health care provider depending on their MELD score (model for end-stage liver disease). This score was established to evaluate the short-term (90-day) survival rate of people with advanced liver damage, and it is determined by a series of blood tests. The MELD score ranges from 6 to 40, with 6 being the best change of survival.

Liver failure death: causes, symptoms, and stages.

Diagnosis of Liver Failure

Doctors may use several tools and methods to diagnosis and evaluate the severity of acute liver failure, including the following.

  • Blood tests: These tests include liver blood tests for enzymes that indicate liver functionality, CBC tests (complete blood count), or other blood tests to look for issues like viral hepatitis infection or undiagnosed genetic conditions.
  • Imaging tests: An MRI, ultrasound, or CT scan may be used to visually inspect the liver.
  • Biopsy: A tissue sample may be taken from the liver to investigate for scarring or other signs of disease and infection.

Liver Failure Treatment Options

First of all, in cases of acute liver failure, the patient will need to be hospitalized, and possibly in the intensive care unit to be given round-the-clock support as medical staff attempts to stabilize and treat their condition. Depending on the cause of the liver failure, a person may either recover or require a liver transplant.

For liver failure resulting from a chronic condition, often the first step is addressing the cause. If it’s drugs or alcohol, rehab needs to be part of the protocol. If it’s due to a viral hepatitis infection, then treatment will follow accordingly. For those with autoimmune conditions, certain therapies may be suggested by the medical team depending on the effects of the condition. If liver failure is a matter of lifestyle causes (poor diet or overuse of medications), then those behaviors would have to be addressed as part of a comprehensive treatment.

The American Liver Foundation says that liver failure can actually be reversed if it’s caught at the second (fibrosis) stage. For the third or cirrhosis stage, while the damage may not be reversed, it can be slowed, stopped, or treated so that the person may continue to live healthily.

For those with end-stage liver failure, however, if a liver transplant cannot be performed, the only follow-up may be end-of-life care.

How to Prevent Liver Failure Death

Given how important liver health is to human survival, taking care of your liver and your overall health is the best way to prevent sometimes permanent and deadly liver damage. Some ways to protect your liver include:

  • Abstaining from alcohol or only drinking in moderation
  • Never mixing medications with other drugs or supplements without a doctor’s consent
  • Never mixing medications with alcohol
  • Taking over-the-counter medications only when needed
  • Taking prescribed medications only as directed and to completion
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Aiding liver detox with your dietary choices
  • Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B

Liver Long and Prosper

If you suspect there is anything wrong with your liver, seek medical advice immediately. The sooner you intervene on behalf of your liver’s health, the better chance you have at being able to reverse the damage done and heal completely. In many cases liver failure death can be prevented, if it’s caught in time and if you follow your doctor’s advice. Eat well, detox regularly, and you may well live long and prosper.

Building Muscle After 50: Top 7 Tips to Go from Sedentary to Stacked

Discover how to build muscle and maintain strength after turning 50: types of workouts, frequency of workouts, and how to supplement effectively now that you’re half a century strong.

One of the biggest concerns that face us as we age is muscle loss. Age-related muscle loss begins in our 30s and ramps up after 50. In advanced years that muscle loss can ultimately contribute to frailty if it’s not combated with proactive muscle building along the way. While those who have kept up with physical activity throughout their 20s and 30s have a much better foundation to build on, it’s never too late to begin weight training or resistance training, gaining muscles that get stronger the more they’re used. Because of these reasons, building muscle after 50 is necessary to keep you healthy and active for the rest of your life.

Sarcopenia: The Silent Breakdown

Age-related muscle loss is known as sarcopenia, and it’s one of the reasons that some of our grandparents lose their independence. The muscle loss that begins in our 30s and doubles down in our 50s gets even more aggressive after 70, but it’s not necessarily a downward slope. Studies show that we can gain muscle clear into our 90s, so not only is building muscle after 50 in the cards, but building muscle after retirement is a go as well. So what’s the holdup?

The issue is aging, and the fact that while we’re young we often don’t have to work as hard to stay fit and recover quickly. Side effects of aging come on gradually, and muscle-building efforts need to increase along with it. Maintenance just won’t cut it: to build muscle we have to challenge ourselves to workouts that are hard to perform at first, and when that level is mastered, we have to go harder.

Octogenarian bodybuilder Ernestine Shepherd was interviewed by The Independent, and revealed that she didn’t start her targeted muscle-building efforts until she was 56 years old, and this was after a lifetime of no exercise and even being exempt from phys. ed. in school because of car accident injury she’d had as a child. Nevertheless Ernestine says that she went from being a receptionist (a sedentary job) to a professional bodybuilder, in better shape and with more energy in every new year. In 2010 she was declared the oldest competitive female bodybuilder by the Guinness Book of World Records.

If, like Ernestine you’re starting from scratch after 50, how do you begin? Read on for some starter tips.

Top tips for building muscle after 50.

The Top 7 Tips to Begin Building Muscle After 50

When a young man or woman decides to build muscle, it often takes no more effort than just trying. Some weight lifting, some cardio, and before these youngsters know it they’ve got muscle groups popping up in places they didn’t even know they had. But for older adults, building muscles is not just about losing weight and looking good, muscle gain starts to become vitally important to staying healthy and independent as we approach our 60s, 70s, 80s, and 90s.

As you age, not only do your joints creak and your hairs turn gray, but your muscle cells start to get eaten up and then not replaced. The younger we are, the more quickly the metabolic process revolves between catabolism (metabolism involving molecular breakdown to access energy) and anabolism (the metabolism of building new complex molecules like muscle proteins with that energy). When we get older, that process—along with so many others—slows down.

Reaching 50 is ideally the halfway point of a long and healthy life, and maintaining muscle strength is important if we want another strong 50 years on this earth. So without further ado, here are seven ways you can optimize your protein intake and start building muscle after 50.

1. Come to the Light

If you want to safely begin to build muscle after years of a largely sedentary lifestyle, you don’t want to head straight to the bench press. It’s not fun but it’s true: a twinge or a tweak to any one of your joints in these early days could snowball into a very severe injury if you’re not careful, derailing your efforts before you even really get going. You’ll get to the deadlifts and barbells soon enough after you’ve built up sufficient strength, but when starting out, start light.

Embracing lighter free weights can spur muscle growth without putting your wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints in any risk whatsoever. Studies show that more reps with lighter weights can stimulate protein synthesis just as well as lower amounts of reps with heavier weights. Lighter-weight training not only helps prevent initial injuries, but it also serves as a useful tool for repairing injuries. Similarly, higher reps with lighter weights leads to real muscle gain in older adults, so the only thing you’re losing out on is risk, not reward.

Once you build up a foundation of muscle, you and your joints will be strong enough to load up a barbell with ever-increasing weights, but as you begin, light is alright. Play to your strengths when it comes to strength training, and you’ll invariably improve as you age.

2. Stay on the Move

A sedentary lifestyle is dangerous to people at any age, but the damage done by inactivity compounds as we get older. To gain muscle, you have to not only incorporate a strength training program but also keep up with cardiovascular health. If your blood isn’t pumping well, you’re not getting the steady supply of oxygen and nutrients needed to build new protein for your muscles.

The cardio impact of walking and running changes in older adults, as seen in this 2010 study comparing younger (24 +/- 3 years) and older (64 +/- 6 years) participant groups. If you’re starting from scratch, begin with walking, increase to jogging and then treat yourself to new pair of running shoes, and know that you’re contributing to your muscle-building efforts with every new mile you cover.

3. HIIT Back

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a great way to burn calories and build muscle quickly for all ages and fitness levels. HIIT is characterized by alternating short bursts of intense physical activity with periods of rest, and according to the Mayo Clinic, it can particularly benefit seniors down to the cellular level, and even reverse certain symptoms of aging.

While experts don’t recommend that every workout be a HIIT workout, cycling it into your workout regimen can help push your abilities to higher heights. And if you’re in a HIIT class full of athletes, just remember that your high intensity is different from their high intensity, and that’s a-okay!

4. Rest to Recover and Rebuild

Regular exercise doesn’t mean constant exercise, and in fact research shows that rest days are just as valuable for muscle building as workout days are. Recovery time means rebuilding time for your muscles, while overtraining syndrome occurs when excessive exercise is paired with an inadequate amount of resting time. The results of overtraining come with side effects that disturb the body’s neurologic, endocrinologic, and immunologic processes, along with the unwelcome symptom of mood changes.

Your recovery times over 50 may be longer than they would be if you started working out in your 20s or 30s, but you’ll know your body best: rest as long as you need, and then get back at it with the gains you’ve made.

5. Stretch It Out

If your muscles are tight, it’s imperative that you stretch them. Stretching before (particularly dynamic stretches) and after your workout helps to limber up the muscle fibers and reduce the risk of muscle strains and sprains, whether you’re working out on your own or under the guidance of a personal trainer.

A full-body workout is not complete without stretching, so be sure to pencil it in, as increased flexibility can help you avoid injury and perform better in your workouts.

6. Good Things Come in Threes

Have you heard of the rule of thirds? It’s a photography guideline for visually pleasing picture compositions. Do you know what “omne trium perfectum” means? It’s Latin for “everything that comes in threes is perfect.” Those rules apply to your strength-training workout frequency too: 3 days a week is a perfect minimum.

While the more’s the better, especially if you’re diversifying your workouts (lift weights on one day, go for a run on the next, etc.), it’s nevertheless true that strength training at least 3 days a week can lead to good progression in muscle building and is a great place to start.

7. Feed Your Need

You cannot make muscles without protein. More specifically, you cannot synthesize new muscle protein without a proper amount of all nine essential amino acids. Most people looking to build muscle know that a high-protein diet and possibly consuming whey protein supplements will help them in gaining muscle, but just because you’re getting enough protein doesn’t necessarily mean you’re getting all the amino acids required to build lean muscle without your body cannibalizing the other muscle cells you have to supply the demand.

Research shows that consuming protein regularly throughout the day and especially after a workout helps stimulate muscle protein synthesis to its optimal degree in elderly people who are well advanced beyond age 50. To gain muscle while maintaining what you already have built, we recommend choosing a muscle-building protein supplement that has a full host of balanced amino acid content so you have all the ingredients you need to create new muscle.

You’ll Muscle Through

Building muscle mass is far from being a young person’s game: it’s everyone’s game to play and to win. While it’s important to start cautiously if you’ve never worked out before, it’s never too late to start building muscle, and the more you gain, the younger you’ll feel, as it’s been scientifically proven that proper fitness can reverse certain aspects of the aging process.

The health benefits of building muscle after 50 go far beyond improving your body weight and maintaining a trim physique. The strength-training efforts you start today can help you lose weight and, according to the American Bone Health organization, also help improve your bone density, which will matter more and more in the coming decades. Lifting weights or engaging in HIIT exercises 3 times a week could mean staying strong for the rest of your life.

The Top 10 Supplements and Vitamins for Joint Pain

Here are the top 10 natural supplements and vitamins you can use to boost bone and joint health, relieve pain from osteo- or rheumatoid arthritis, and strengthen your body’s cartilage resources.

Joint pain afflicts many people, often in cases as serious as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that can diminish one’s range of motion and quality of life. In the case of most arthritis conditions, previously healthy joints begin to develop degenerative conditions, whether genetically or through wear and tear. Levels of chronic pain vary, but there are dietary supplements that can help before resorting to dangerous pharmaceutical drugs for pain relief. This article runs down the top 10 supplements and vitamins for joint pain management.

The Unfortunate Abundance of Arthritis

Almost a quarter of the American population is afflicted with some form of arthritis. Pain in one’s joints can arise from many different conditions involving bone health, connective tissues, or the immune system, but the one thing they all have in common is a shared need for joint support.

While over-the-counter drugs like Tylenol (acetaminophen) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Advil (ibuprofen) are often quick solutions for joint pain relief, when it comes to chronic conditions, taking drugs indefinitely can lead to other side effects. Stomach bleeding, kidney stress, and liver damage, can all result from taking too many drugstore medications, and often people want relief without risking other aspects of their priceless health.

What follows are natural supplements and vitamins that can support bone and joint health without the need for drugs or medications.

Top 10 supplements and vitamins for joints.

The Top 10 Supplements and Vitamins for Joints

Here are 10 proven aids for joint health you can safely add to your daily routine.

1. Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a natural, crystalline compound found in our cartilage and connective tissue. Cartilage is the rubbery component of our joints that keeps our bones from rubbing together as we move (which would cause pain and dangerous wear).

Many joint disorders involve the breakdown of cartilage. But cartilage can not heal like our skin or our livers can, because cartilage has no blood supply. Therefore, in an effort to maintain healthy cartilage before it wears away to nothing, glucosamine can be consumed.

While glucosamine has been extensively studied in connection with osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease or DJD), researchers are still unclear on how it works. Of the two types of glucosamine supplements—glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate—glucosamine hydrochloride appeared to be ineffective in improving joint pain according to a 2013 meta-analysis of studies. And a 2007 study found that glucosamine sulfate did improve osteoarthritis symptoms.

When it comes to joint health, glucosamine sulfate is suggested for supplementation, as studies indicate that it may work by slowing down the narrowing of your joint space, a marker of worsening osteoarthritis progression.

2. Chondroitin

Chondroitin is a central component of cartilage, much like glucosamine. It, too, may help prevent cartilage breakdown due to osteoarthritis and other joint conditions.

Studies have shown that chondroitin has the ability to relieve joint pain and lessen the stiffness associated with osteoarthritis. Up to 53% of those who take it report a significant improvement in knee pain.

Chondroitin sulfate may also slow down joint narrowing and delay the degenerative progression of osteoarthritis.

Preservation is the name of the game in degenerative cases, meaning chondroitin is another valuable, natural addition to this list. Both chondroitin and glucosamine can often be found packaged together in joint supplements on the market.

3. Turmeric

A natural supplement known for its anti-inflammatory effects, turmeric root has a bright golden-orange color and can help relieve inflammation throughout the body, including in joints afflicted with arthritis. Curcumin is the active compound in turmeric that makes it an effective supplement, and it has been shown to perform significantly better than a placebo when tested in randomized clinical trials, as can be seen in this systematic review and meta-analysis from 2016.

Some studies suggest that turmeric may perform at the same level as ibuprofen, making it an excellent potential replacement for over-the-counter drugs that may cause digestive damage if taken too frequently.

4. Vitamin D

Having low levels of vitamin D is linked with a higher likelihood that you’ll suffer from joint pain. Not only does vitamin D aid the absorption of calcium (the bedrock component of your bones), but it also helps regulate phosphorus, another key player in bone health.

You can purchase a vitamin D supplement, or you can get it from eating fortified foods like cereal and milk (which also contain calcium), or from the natural rays provided by a few minutes’ exposure to the sun.

5. Frankincense

Frankincense, aka boswellia, is another natural compound like turmeric that is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect on arthritis and more. The active components in the extract are known as boswellia acids, and they have been clinically proven to ease knee pain and increase knee flexion and walking distance better than a placebo.

6. ASUs (Avocado-Soybean Unsaponifiables)

Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs) are the extracts from avocado and soybean oils that can help prevent cartilage breakdown. They’re known to possess anti-inflammatory, anabolic, and anticatabolic properties, and on a practical level can reduce joint pain and stiffness while improving joint function in human subjects.

7. SAMe (S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine)

S-adenosyl-L-methionine or SAMe is a derivative of the amino acid methionine. While methionine is an essential amino acid that you need to consume to gain, SAMe is a chemical created naturally from methionine in the liver. One of its functions is to aid in the production and repair of cartilage tissue.

Supplementing with SAMe can enhance these effects, as was found in this 2004 study comparing SAMe with the anti-inflammatory drug Celebrex (celecoxib). After 1 month of supplementation, Celebrex was out-performing SAMe, but at the 2-month mark both were performing more-or-less equally.

8. Devil’s Claw

The charmingly named devil’s claw, or harpagophytum, contains an anti-inflammatory compound known as harpogoside. Devil’s claw is native to southern Africa and a member of the sesame family, and is so-called because of its hook-like fruit. In this study from 2000, devil’s claw was found to be comparable in effect to diacerein, an anti-inflammatory drug, providing yet another promising natural alternative to drugs for joint pain relief.

9. Fish Oil

The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil—DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)—not only have anti-inflammatory effects but can also improve heart health, brain function, and liver health. When it comes to the joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a recent 2017 study found that consuming fish oil supplements helped reduce joint pain in the participants with RA.

10. Calcium

No joint health list would be complete without calcium, the building material that keeps us all standing tall.

Up to 99% of the calcium in our bodies resides in our bones (and our teeth). Without sufficient calcium, our bones become weak, more prone to fracture and dislocation. Weakened bones will inevitably impact our joints, which are defined as the space where two bones meet, or join together, and may cause joint deformity or even an acceleration of cartilage and joint tissue damage. For all of these reasons, calcium matters greatly when it comes to joint health.

Without enough calcium, too many people develop osteoporosis, a bone disease that comes with its own side effects of joint pain and weakness. The Arthritis Foundation asserts that getting enough calcium is vital for those with rheumatoid arthritis and those who are taking corticosteroids for treatment, as they both increase the risk of osteoporosis, which leads to a higher risk of falls, fracture, and joint deformation.

Calcium can be found in dairy products like milk and yogurt, fortified and enriched foods like breakfast cereals, and dark greens like spinach and broccoli. Women generally need to consume more calcium than men, especially women who have been pregnant.

Superior Joint Health Supplements

Consult your doctor for advice on supplements and vitamins for joint health, as not all supplements are closely regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Your doctor knows best what your joints need and in what dosages, so that they don’t conflict with any other medications (like blood thinners) or treatments you’re currently undergoing. When seeking supplements for joint pain, natural remedies are the best option if your condition is responsive to them, so do not hesitate to try.

Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD): Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a chronic condition that cannot be cured but can be managed to help preserve the joint health you still have before it’s too far gone. Let’s take a look at the causes, symptoms, and treatments.

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is another term for the condition known as osteoarthritis or degenerative arthritis. Painful and debilitating, this disease afflicts more than 30 million Americans according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and this article details its causes, along with its prevention and treatment options.

What Is Degenerative Joint Disease?

Degenerative joint disease, or DJD (the medical abbreviation), is an all-too-common chronic joint disorder. Your joints are the spots in your body where two bones meet and are joined together via layers of cartilage and connective tissues like muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

With DJD, the cartilage starts to break down in the joint space, allowing painful bone-on-bone contact that causes stiffness, disability, and many other adverse symptoms. We’ll review those symptoms below, and then go on to discuss what causes DJD and how to slow its development.

The Causes of DJD

Age is one of the leading causes of DJD, commonly referred to as “wear-and-tear” arthritis because that’s often how it develops: a lifetime of using your joints may wear down the cartilage that keeps your bones separated. Other risk factors include a family history of joint disorders like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

Causes include:

  • Torn cartilage
  • Ligament injury
  • Dislocated joints

Whether the joint damage comes from an accident or is just a side effect of daily activities done under your own body weight, the pain can interfere with your life, and could ultimately require a joint replacement surgery.

The Nature of Cartilage

Your cartilage is a tough, rubbery, flexible substance that protects your bones while allowing them to move and slide against each other. When your cartilage starts to break down, the bone surfaces begin to roughen, causing pain in the joint and inflammation in the surrounding tissues.

Cartilage cannot repair itself like your skin or even your liver can—there are no blood vessels in cartilage, and so the damage suffered there is damage that is permanent.

Once cartilage wears away entirely, there is no more buffer between your bones to cushion their contact. What follows are the symptoms of that condition.

DJD Symptoms

Degeneration of cartilage can happen in any joint in your body, but the most common joints affected are the joints in your hands and fingers, hips, spine, and knee. The symptoms of DJD can include:

  • Joint pain: Pain in your joints during movement or even at rest could be an indication that there is friction between your bones and less cartilage to prevent it. This pain may worsen as the disease progresses.
  • Inflammation: A burning or itching inflamed feeling may be felt in your joints and surrounding tissues.
  • Stiffness: As stiffness worsens, your range of motion may become more limited, interrupting your daily activities and decreasing your quality of life.
  • Tenderness: The joints may become sensitive to the touch, especially if DJD develops in your fingers and hands.
  • Swelling: Synovial fluid (an egg-white-like viscous fluid in your joints) may increase in DJD cases, causing painful swelling. It may also contain broken-off pieces of cartilage freely floating within it.
  • Joint instability: Your joints may fail, buckle (lock up), or otherwise become unstable and unreliable, possibly causing falls if DJD is in your knee joints or hip joints.
  • Other symptoms: As DJD progresses, other symptoms may arise, like weakening muscles, bone spurs, and joint deformations.

While this condition and these damages are not reversible, there are ways to treat and alleviate the resulting pain.

DJD vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not the same as DJD. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder rather than a degenerative condition that can be caused by natural wear and tear. While they share similar symptoms, they are nevertheless different conditions and require different treatment methods to manage.

DJD Diagnosis

If you have joint pain, your doctor may take a medical history and assess your symptoms before ordering an imaging scan from either an X-ray or MRI machine to evaluate the condition of your bones and joints. A blood test may be ordered to rule out rheumatoid arthritis, and a fluid analysis may be conducted to find out whether your joint pain is caused by an infection or possibly gout.

Degenerative joint disease: causes and treatments.

DJD Treatment Options

Because DJD cannot be reversed, these treatments are therapies meant to manage your symptoms and retain the health you still have. This is why early diagnosis is important—you’ll want to slow the progression of the degeneration as much as possible. Outside of pain and anti-inflammatory medications your doctor may suggest or prescribe, here are lifestyle changes you can make to help manage DJD at home.

Low-Impact Exercise

Not only does exercise shore up your muscle strength, which provides joint stability, but certain low-impact exercise techniques like yoga or swimming can help stretch your body, alleviate stiffness, and improve your flexibility and pain management tools.

Gently stretching, going on walks, or practicing tai chi can improve your range of motion and preserve the joint health you still have.

Weight Loss

If you are overweight or obese, your weight-bearing joints like your knees are under extra strain, which could quicken the progression of DJD. Losing excess weight may not only improve your joint pain but could also save you from other health dangers like heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Quality Sleep

Getting a good night’s sleep improves your mood and mental health and allows your joints to rest and recover at the end of each day. Tips for a good night’s sleep include sticking to a regular bedtime, following the same pre-sleep routines, and going to bed in a cool, dark room.

Hot and Cold Therapy

You can help relieve joint pain by applying a heating pad or cold compresses as needed to the afflicted joints. Doing so can reduce swelling and inflammation and draw blood to the area to help repair surrounding tissue damage.

DJD Medications

Medications and pain killers that may help you manage DJD include:

  • OTC analgesics: Over-the-counter painkillers like acetaminophen (Tylenol) along with pain-relieving gels, creams, or topical patches may help you manage pain flare-ups.
  • NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve) can help reduce swelling and joint pain.
  • Antidepressants: The antidepressant duloxetine (Cymbalta) may be useful in helping you achieve pain relief—ask your doctor if it’s appropriate for your condition.
  • Corticosteroids: Oral or injected corticosteroids are prescription medications that can provide joint pain relief.

DJD Natural Treatments

Your doctor may advise that you try to avoid relying on drugs if you can manage your pain more naturally. Here are non-drug supplements that could help your DJD symptoms.

  • Green tea
  • Ginger
  • Fish oil
  • Glucosamine

Likewise natural physical treatment options include:

Don’t Let Degeneration Get You Down

There are very few upsides when it comes to degenerative conditions: the pain you’re in now might be persistent and progressive, and it’s hard to find a silver lining in what, medically speaking, is a downward slope. Focus not on what you can’t control, instead set your sights on how healthy you can be around degenerative joint disease, how well you can preserve your joints, and how you can build strength going forward.

SI Joint Pain: How to Identify and Relieve Sacroiliac Joint Pain

SI joint pain: find out if your lower back pain is coming from your sacroiliac joints, what causes this pain, and what treatment options are available to relieve it.

Your sacroiliac or SI joints are located in your lower back, and may be the source of low back pain you experience. This article has information that will help you identify SI joint pain. We’re also covering the different methods of pain relief and treatment options.

Where Is the SI Joint?

Issues with the sacroiliac joints are thought to be the cause of 15-30% of chronic lower back pain cases. A problem at your SI joint may manifest as a radiating stabbing pain between your pelvis and hips, or it may be felt as numbness and tingling down your thighs that makes it feel as if your legs are going to buckle. That is because your SI joints are located just above your tailbone (coccyx), between the triangle-shaped bone at the base of your spine (the sacrum) and two of your three hip bones (the flared ones that jut out below your waist, known plurally as your ilia), which reside at the uppermost part of your pelvis.

SI joint pain: causes and treatments.

The Symptoms of SI Joint Pain

SI joint pain, sometimes referred to as sacral pain, affects around 80% of adults in the United States at some point in their lives. Lower back pain and injury is one of the most common causes of work-related disabilities as well, most likely because the SI joint is the fulcrum of your back, responsible for distributing your body’s weight over the pelvic region and acting as a shock absorber for your spine.

The space between the jagged SI joint bones is full of lubricating fluid and free nerve endings that send pain signals directly to the brain. When there is any misalignment in the SI joint, the pain can be debilitating, and the communication between the nerves may be interrupted, causing numbness or lack of feeling.

While the bones in this area are stabilized by strong ligaments and muscle connections that allow us to stand upright, unlike our ape ancestors, and give birth to the large craniums of human babies, the area is nevertheless extremely vulnerable to injury and other medical conditions.

Some common symptoms of SI joint pain include:

  • Lower back pain
  • Pain in the hips, groin, or buttocks
  • Radiating pain that spreads down to the thighs
  • Stiffness or burning feelings in the pelvis
  • Numbness or weakness
  • A sensation of leg-buckling
  • Increased pain when standing from a seated position

SI Joint Pain: What Are the Causes?

There are many ways the SI joint can experience pain, only one of which is injury. Inflammation of the SI joint is called sacroiliitis, though it is often referred to as sacroiliac joint dysfunction, a general umbrella term that could apply to any of the following causes of SI joint pain.

1. Injury

The lower back is one of the most vulnerable parts of our bodies. Our brains are protected by our skulls, our most vital organs all guarded by our ribs or cradled by our pelvic bones, but the lower back region is wide-open. This allows for a unique range of motion and the ability to stand upright and tall, but it also means that the weight of the world relies on one column of bone and ligaments (the spine), which sits atop the sacroiliac joint. Trauma resulting from motor vehicle accidents, household or workplace falls, or even sudden twists of movement can cause injuries and damage that may persist for a lifetime.

2. Pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman’s SI joint needs to become more elastic to allow for a vaginal birth. This is achieved with the release of a hormone aptly called relaxin, which allows the pelvis to widen when it comes time to give birth.

A combination between this elasticity, plus the weight gain associated with pregnancy and the positioning of the baby’s body, all lead to a higher likelihood of SI injury or ache. The joint becomes less stable, and some women even develop arthritis in their SI joints, a condition that may worsen with subsequent pregnancies.

3. Gait

Your walking pattern or gait can contribute to SI joint pain and dysfunction. For example, an overpronation problem can affect the way you walk, and the same is true if one leg happens to be longer than the other. A lifetime of irregular walking can add up to problems like shin splints, knee joint pain, and lower back pain, conditions that may or may not be remedied by corrective footwear.

4. Gout

Gouty arthritis, or simply gout, is a disease characterized by high levels of uric acid in the body, often caused by poor diet and lifestyle choices. The joint pain caused by uric acid buildup can be severe, and while it usually starts with the joint of the big toe, it can affect any joint, including the two SI joints.

5. Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis involves the degeneration of joint cartilage, causing potential pain and stiffness in many joints, including the SI joint, the knees, hips, and thumbs.

6. Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that affects the joints of the spine. Not only does it cause pain from inflammation, but it can also lead to the growth of new bone structures that fuse together spinal joints and inhibit normal movement. This condition primarily affects the SI joint, but it can also cause inflammation in other joints and organs as far away as the eyes. It is most likely to be diagnosed in young men.

Diagnosing SI Joint Issues

SI joint problems are often hard to diagnose. These joints are located deep in your body and their associated issues often cannot be seen on CT, MRI, or X-ray images. Another reason is that lower back pain and other signs of SI issues resemble the symptoms of different conditions like arthritis of the hip, bulging spinal disks, and sciatica.

Doctors may diagnose your SI joint problems with a:

  • Physical examThe doctor may move you or ask you to stretch in certain ways to identify the source of your pain.
  • Diagnostic injectionBy injecting a local anesthetic like lidocaine into the SI region, doctors may determine the source of your pain if it temporarily disappears upon injection at that site.
  • Imaging test: While X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs don’t show every potential cause of SI joint pain, they can reveal an injury or misalignment right away.

SI Joint Pain: Treatment Options

Here are some possible options for treating pain in your SI joints.

Non-Surgical Treatment Options

  • Pain medication: Doctors may prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids to help relieve joint inflammation and chronic SI pain that cannot otherwise be prevented.
  • Chiropractic or physical therapy: A physical therapist or chiropractic physician may perform or instruct you in SI joint stretches to relieve pain and build strength.
  • Yoga: The stretching exercises that characterize yoga can help increase flexibility and improve your pain symptoms.
  • SI joint injectionsMedications like corticosteroids may be regularly injected into the affected SI joint or joints to ease pain.
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): This procedure, like steroid injections, can help temporarily deaden certain sensory nerves to stop the transmission of pain signals from the SI joints.
  • Physical aids: A sacroiliac belt or corrective footwear could help SI joint pain depending on its cause.

Surgical Treatment Options

Surgery is the very last resort when it comes to relieving sacroiliac pain, and involves a sacroiliac joint fusion surgery that utilizes small screws and plates to encourage these bones to fuse together. It’s invasive, it comes with its own set of risks (as does any major surgery), and experts agree it’s best to explore all other nonsurgical options before deciding alongside your doctor that this is the only way forward.

Preventing and Recovering from SI Joint Pain

Some instances of SI joint pain are temporary, say if it’s caused by a pregnancy or can be dealt with by wearing corrective gear. However, sometimes this pain arises from chronic medical conditions like osteoarthritis or irreversible injury, and may plague you for a much longer time without medical intervention.

Be cautious with your back when lifting or moving items at home or at work, and maintain a healthy lifestyle to avoid conditions like gout. That being said, not all SI joint pain causes can be avoided, so consult with a trusted medical professional to recover the best way possible.

SI joint pain: causes and treatments.

 

Amino Acids for Skin Tightening

Amino acids for skin tightening, anti aging, collagen building, and hydration: find out which amino acids are effective to have in your skin care products.

When searching for an anti-aging advantage, many people will turn to cosmetic and skin care products for replenishment and support. Whether it’s a moisturizer to cut down on redness or eye wrinkle cream meant to tighten the skin back up, the question is what substances actually work? When it comes to skin health, collagen production is key, and this article explains which amino acids for skin tightening and rejuvenation can help on the outside (from topical products) and within (for nutritional support).

What Is in Most Wrinkle Creams?

Let’s quickly review which ingredients in topical creams are meant to reduce wrinkles and prevent or reverse the symptoms of aging on skin. The following ingredients have been shown to be effective in improving the appearance of wrinkles.

  • Vitamin C: This antioxidant is known to protect your skin against sun damage when applied to the skin in a topical cream.
  • Retinol: Vitamin A, or retinol, is an antioxidant compound that helps to fight against free radical damage and oxidative stress that breaks down your skin cells.
  • Hydroxy acids: Alpha, beta, and poly hydroxy acids work as exfoliants to help remove dead skin cells and encourage new, smoother skin cell growth.
  • Coenzyme Q10: This enzyme helps to protect against sun damage and reduce finer wrinkles around the eyes, making it a regular ingredient in eye wrinkle cream.
  • Grape seed extract: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and promoter of wound healing, grape seed extract is sometimes included in skin cream.
  • Peptides: Peptides can help ameliorate stretch marks, encourage wound healing, and reduce wrinkles.
  • Niacinamide: This antioxidant similar to B3 (niacin) promotes hydration and skin elasticity.
  • Tea extracts: Black, oolong, and green tea extracts have plant compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Green tea extracts specifically are commonly found in topical wrinkle creams.

Amino Acids for Skin Tightening

Now that you know what’s usually in skin care cream, what about amino acids? These building blocks of protein in the body do more than just build muscle—they regulate your hormones and create necessary chemical substances that help keep you alive and healthy.

But what about aminos as components of skin care products? Do amino acids do better inside or outside the body, and are they effective in wrinkle creams? Here are the amino acids that have the greatest impact on your skin’s health, and how they are best applied.

What Are Amino Acids?

There are 20 main amino acids in the human body, and they are divided into two categories: essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids are the 9 aminos you need to consume from outside sources, while the remaining 11 nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by your own body so long as it has the right ingredients.

  • The essential amino acids include: Leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, histidine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. They can be found in animal meat (poultry, seafood, beef), animal products (eggs, dairy), and in certain high-protein plant foods (soy products, legumes, beans, and nuts).
  • The nonessential amino acids are: Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. Each of these aminos are made by the natural bodily functionings of most healthy adults.

Amino acids for skin tightening and anti aging.

Amino Acids for Collagen and Skin

Amino acids are a natural part of the skin, keeping it hydrated, supple, and alive. Amino acids are also what make up our collagen molecules, collagen being one of the most abundant proteins in our bodies. Collagen makes up the connective tissues in our bodies like our muscles and tendons, it’s in our hair and our fingernails, and it’s also about 70% of our skin’s protein content. Collagen is a peptide because it has between 2 and 10 amino acids that make it up. Those amino acids are:

  • Arginine: The “anti-aging” amino acid that can repair visible skin damage.
  • Glycine: The simplest naturally occurring amino acid we have, glycine improves moisture retention, increases our collagen production, and promotes skin regeneration.
  • Proline: The producer of cartilage and the collagen that aids wound healing.
  • Hydroxyproline: Made from proline and lysine, this amino acid derivative makes up a good portion of fibrillar collagens.

The other amino acids that contribute to healthy skin are:

  • Histidine: An antioxidant that can help soothe skin.
  • Methionine: Works by eliminating the damaging substances that can harm our skin.
  • Lysine: Helps firm skin’s surface by aiding its supportive structures.
  • Leucine: Diminishes wrinkles and fine lines on the skin.

How Do Amino Acids Work for Skin?

One way amino acids improve skin health is by working with aquaporins, which transport water throughout the body and provide moisture for our skin. Aquaporins can also encourage hydration when applied to the skin’s surface with a cosmetic product.

While some amino acids serve as antioxidants, others help the skin create its own antioxidant supply, including the antioxidant glutathione, which helps fortify the skin when applied topically, preventing the signs of aging that are caused by environmental damage.

Synthetic amino acids in skin care products have been shown to be just as effective and sometimes better than plant- or animal-derived aminos. Great news for those who are conscientious about leading a vegan lifestyle, because you can avoid animal products and still enjoy the benefits of amino acid skin-tightening support.

How Do Amino Acids Work with Other Ingredients?

The amino acids in collagen peptides and the amino acids that support skin health and hydration in other ways work in concert with one another. High-quality skin care products may contain additional ingredients that help facilitate that dance, and those substances include:

  • Hyaluronic acidA key molecule in aiding skin moisture, hyaluronic acid has a unique capacity for retaining water.
  • Omega fatty acids: The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can help treat skin disorders with dermatological application.
  • Glycerin: Glycerin has been shown to help improve skin hydration, especially when combined with hyaluronic acid.
  • Ceramides: These are lipids that help shield the skin from damaging environmental influences, and can be used topically as a therapy for dermatoses.
  • Other collagen-like peptides: Anti-aging collagen-like peptides have significant effects on reducing wrinkles.

Aging Gracefully and Scientifically

Amino acids help make up our skin, and consuming the correct proportions of essential amino acids can contribute to anti-aging, as can applying certain amino acids as skin treatments. Amino acid need is universal in humans, and amino acid skin-tightening treatments can work for all ages and all pigments of skin.