Muscle Atrophy: Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Learn about what causes muscle wasting or muscle atrophy, and how best to prevent and treat this condition, including through the use of physical therapy, medical intervention, and staying active. 

Muscle atrophy is essentially muscle wasting: it’s what happens when your muscles waste away, frequently as a result of a lack of physical activity. This article will explore the causes and symptoms of muscle atrophy, as well as preventative steps people can take if they’re immobile or bedridden due to illness. Loss of muscle mass or muscle strength can be particularly devastating for those who are already in positions of compromised health, and so in an effort to help you maintain your quality of life, we’ve compiled the relevant information here.

Muscle Atrophy: Definition

Atrophy of the muscles occurs when a person is inactive for so long that their skeletal muscles (these are the muscles attached to your bones which literally make your skeleton move) begin to break down, and the muscle protein is cannibalized by the body. This can happen in small instances or large, catastrophic instances.

Muscle atrophy of the hand or forearm may occur if you spend weeks in a cast to heal a broken arm, which is why people in casts are given exercises to do while they’re immobilized to prevent protein degradation in their muscles and muscle wasting. Muscle atrophy of the legs or muscle atrophy of the thighs can happen on a much larger scale to those who become wheelchair-bound, either temporarily or due to becoming permanently paraplegic. In even more extreme cases, those who have been held as prisoners of war may have full-body muscle wasting due to confinement and malnutrition for significantly long periods, sometimes years.

Muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass, either partial or complete, which is most commonly suffered when a person becomes disabled or their movements severely restricted. This makes it difficult or impossible to move the part of the body where the muscle has atrophied, and medical advice should be sought for solutions.

Muscle atrophy: causes, treatment, and prevention.

Muscle Atrophy: Causes

Significant decreases in activity levels can lead to muscle atrophy, and there are many situations where that can occur, causing what’s known as disuse atrophy. There are also instances of muscle atrophy due to medical conditions that inhibit the use of a body part, and even rarer causes like the muscle atrophy experienced by astronauts after relatively short periods (a few days) of weightlessness. Muscle atrophy in situations of being bedbound or ceasing intense physical training can come on in as little as 2 weeks. Some of the other causes of muscle atrophy are as follows.

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Advanced aging
  • Malnutrition
  • Stroke
  • Alcohol-associated myopathy
  • Burns
  • Temporary disabling injuries (broken bones, torn rotator cuff)
  • Permanently disabling injuries (severed spinal cord, peripheral nerve damage)
  • Prolonged corticosteroid therapy

Some of the diseases and medical conditions that can disrupt or restrict movement, thus leading to muscle atrophy, include:

  • Spinal muscular atrophy: A hereditary wasting disease of the limbs.
  • Osteoarthritis: Degeneration of bones and joint cartilage that leads to decreased movement.
  • Polymyositis: An inflammatory disease of the muscles.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease): Compromises the nerve cells of the spinal cord.
  • Muscular dystrophy: A hereditary disease that causes muscle weakness.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disease that destroys the protective sheathing of brain and spinal nerves.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A chronic inflammatory disease of the joints.
  • Dermatomyositis: Inflammation of the skin and underlying muscle tissue.
  • Polio: A virus afflicting muscle tissue, which can lead to paralysis.
  • Cancer cachexia: The weight loss, lack of energy, and loss of appetite in someone undergoing cancer treatment.
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome: An autoimmune disease and form of polyneuritis, which leads to paralysis of the limbs.
  • Neuropathy: Nerve damage that results in loss of sensation or functioning.

Muscle Atrophy: Symptoms

Regardless of the cause, these are the symptoms that may alert you to possible muscle atrophy, after which a trusted medical professional should be sought for advice.

  • One of your limbs (arms, legs) appears markedly smaller than the other one.
  • You’ve spent a long time physically inactive (bedridden, hospitalized).
  • You’re experiencing noticeable weakness in one limb.

Not to be flippant about the subject, but there is some truth to the phrase “use it or lose it” when it comes to muscle. If you cannot move your muscles with regular physical activity, you will start to lose them.

Muscle atrophy pain may or may not be a symptom, as that depends on the cause of the atrophy. Many people will begin to lose muscle before they are aware it’s happening, and will have to rely on visual muscle size to realize they need medical attention.

Muscle Atrophy: Diagnosis

Once you’ve gotten in contact with a medical professional, the diagnosis may involve your full medical history, a review of any previous injuries, as well as an evaluation of your symptoms. Diagnosing the atrophy may also involve diagnosing the underlying medical condition, which may require blood tests, X-rays, MRIs, CTs, a nerve conduction study, or a muscle and/or nerve biopsy to find out what could be causing muscle atrophy if it’s not readily apparently (as it would be if you’d suddenly become bedbound).

Can Muscle Atrophy Be Reversed?

Depending on the cause, yes. There are some cases where a proper diet, exercise, and physical therapy can not only reverse muscle atrophy, but also prevent it from recurring. However, this will not be the case in some disease-related forms of atrophy, and it is important that you consult your doctor on what your expectations for muscle atrophy recovery should be in restimulating protein synthesis and rebuilding your muscles.

Muscle Atrophy: Treatment

Again, this will depend on the diagnosis of the cause, and also the severity of your muscle loss, but the treatments for reversible muscle atrophy may be as follows.

  • Physical therapy
  • Exercise
  • Ultrasound therapy
  • Dietary changes
  • Surgery
  • Electrical stimulation

If a lack of movement caused this condition, regaining movement will go a long way towards fixing it, and moderate exercise like walking, along with physical therapy, may be a way to regain muscle strength without needing surgery to fix skin, tendons, or ligaments too tight to begin moving again (as in cases of contracture deformity that could be caused by malnutrition or burn injury scar tissue).

Muscle Atrophy: Prevention

There are ways to prevent muscle atrophy before it happens, and ways to guard against it if you were fortunate enough to recover your musculature after one instance of muscle loss. If preventing muscle atrophy is in your control (and, of course, sometimes it will not be), here are a few ways to maintain muscle strength in adverse circumstances.

Stay Active

If you’re in recovery from a severe illness or have just come home from the hospital after a debilitating accident, it’s not as if you’ll take up jogging right away. However, movements as small as walking to your mailbox each day, or around the block, or up and down a single flight of stairs, can truly make the difference in the long run when it comes to maintaining your mobility.

Stay Nourished

Depending on your condition, this may be difficult, but when your body lacks the proper nutrition to stay running, it will start to catabolize your muscles for its needs, which is a form of self-cannibalization or destructive metabolism that literally eats away at your muscles. Make sure you’re getting proper protein, if not from whole foods, then in the forms of protein shakes or supplements, as every little bit may help.

In fact, supplementing with amino acids has been proven to help accelerate muscle recovery in times of sickness and illness and can help boost your muscle-building gains. To learn more about amino acid therapy for muscle atrophy, give this informative article, written by one of the world’s foremost amino acid researchers, a read.

Seek Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is particularly valuable for those with severe injury recovery (such as a car crash survivor) or a neurological condition, as therapists provide professional guidance on what, and how, and how often to stretch your body to build strength.

Try Passive Movement

Another way physical therapy can help you even before you have the strength to help yourself is with passive movement. Passive movement requires the therapist to gently move your legs and arms for you. This is how you can begin to recover from a very deep muscle deficit and build up strength and muscle again.

Preventative Measures

Not only will the above advice help prevent muscle atrophy, but it can also help discourage bedsores in those who are bedridden due to illness, and reduce the chances of developing dangerous blood clots in the limbs. Likewise, these movements may prevent muscle stiffness, retraction, and nerve damage. Consult a medical professional or licensed physical therapist for more advice.

Eliminate Atrophy

If you are in danger of muscle atrophy, take steps to make sure your protein intake and nutrients are sufficient, including the use of a supplement if necessary, like Amino Co.’s essential amino acid supplement, which contains all of the essential aminos required to build new muscle cells and structures. Also, make sure that you stay active, no matter in how small a way, to preserve your muscle function and prevent your muscles from falling into complete disuse. You cannot always control your body’s condition, but if the type of atrophy you fear is the type that’s preventable, it’s well worth the effort to maintain the quality of life and movement you’ve come to expect.

When Is the Best Time to Take Protein?

The best time to take protein supplements depends on your activity level, your personal goals, and the types of workouts you engage in. This article will provide you with specific, scientifically backed recommendations, and the reasoning behind that advice.

When taking protein supplements, people often wonder when exactly is the best time of day to consume them. Pre-workout? Post-workout? Is it okay to drink a protein shake before bed? Protein supplements can help people lose weight, build muscle, and recover from tissue damage due to injury or surgery. Because they’re so effective, most people want to be sure they’re utilizing protein the right way. So when is the best time to take protein? Short answer is: that depends on your health goals and the kinds of workouts you’re doing. For the longer answer and more detail, read on.

The Different Types of Protein Supplements

Protein is a source of energy for the body, essential for muscle growth, repairing damaged tissue, and preventing certain infections and diseases. Normal dietary protein comes from foods like meats, eggs, fish, dairy, grains, legumes, and seeds. Though animal products contain the most amount of protein, vegetables are sources of protein too, a fact well-known by those living a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. Of the most popular protein powders on the market in fact, a significant portion are plant-based.

Plant-based proteins include:

  • Soy protein containing all nine essential amino acids.
  • Rice protein, which is lower in the essential amino acid lysine.
  • Pea protein, which has lower levels of the essential amino acid methionine and nonessential amino acid cysteine.
  • Hemp protein, which is low in lysine but high in fiber, and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, both of which are essential, meaning your body can’t make them on its own, and needs to gain them from the foods you eat.

Dairy-based proteins include:

  • Whey protein, which is absorbed relatively quickly and contains all nine essential amino acids.
  • Casein protein from milk curds, also containing the essential amino acids, and with a slower digestion rate than whey (which is why people often take casein before they sleep, so it will digest throughout the night… more on that timing below).

Animal-based proteins include:

  • Egg protein powder made from pure egg white protein.
  • Creatine, which is not found in plants but can be synthetically created. Though it is an animal protein, depending on its origin source, it may nevertheless be possible for vegans to use creatine as a supplement.

These are among the most commonly known protein powders available to buy, but we here at the Amino Co. have also developed an essential amino acid (EAA) blend that isn’t lacking or low on any of the amino acids required for protein synthesis and new muscle growth. It also blends free-form amino acids with whey protein and creatine, a nonessential protein that nevertheless has great value as a supplement. These forms of protein are used to help those who want to build muscle rapidly, and can even benefit those with muscle, neurological, or neuromuscular diseases.

The Varied Uses of Protein Supplementation

From muscle building to weight loss, here’s a quick look at all that supplemental protein can do to benefit your body.

Exercise Performance and Recovery

Added protein has been shown to increase endurance during training and workouts, as well as reduce soreness and speed up post-workout recovery. The timing of your protein intake matters here, whether you’re eating high-protein foods or taking supplements. Read on to learn about workout-specific timing recommendations.

Muscle Building

Muscles can only be built when you have the proper amount of amino acids for protein synthesis, and when you’re consuming more protein than your body breaks down during workouts. Taking a protein supplement, especially one that contains all the necessary EAAs for muscle growth, can make a huge difference. Finding the right anabolic window, the period of time when the protein you take in will go directly to your muscles, is something the International Society of Sports Nutrition has done extensive research on, and we, too, will provide specific scientific reasoning below.

Muscle Loss Prevention

Muscle mass is lost not only during intensive workouts, but also naturally as we age. Each decade you live after the age of 30 brings with it a higher risk of losing muscle (anywhere between 3-8% per decade). Proper protein intake is not only valuable to athletes, bodybuilders, and anyone who works out regularly, but it’s also important for each and every one of us as we age. Most Americans reserve their protein more for dinner than breakfast (3 times the amount on average is the difference between the two meals), and could use a supplemental boost of protein first thing in the morning to shore up their protein stores and help prevent the loss of muscle mass due to aging.

Fat Loss Facilitation

Protein is filling enough to help curb hunger pangs and chemically contributes to appetite suppression by reducing the “hunger hormone” ghrelin. A high-protein diet raises your metabolism and increases levels of appetite-reducing hormones like peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). More satiety means fewer calories consumed throughout the day, which quickly leads to safe, maintainable weight loss and the reduction of dangerous body fat.

The Enduring Power of Protein

Popular because they’re convenient and effective, protein powders and supplements are here to stay and can offer you a wide variety of options, from self-mix formulas and powders to ready-to-drink protein shakes. If you’ve got your preferred protein supplement ready to go, then it’s time to wonder: when should you drink protein?

The Best Time to Take Protein Depending on Your Workout

Depending on your goals and activities, there are recommended times to take protein for the greatest effectiveness for your energy levels and muscle-building needs. Here are specific recommendations based on different types of workout activity.

The best time to take protein supplements.

Aerobic/Cardiovascular Exercise

Best time to take protein: Pre-workout and post-workout

The amino acid leucine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and it promotes muscle recovery after workouts. Not only that, it activates protein synthesis, prompting new muscle to be built. One might think that due to leucine’s ability to boost endurance and stamina, one should take a BCAA supplement before a workout, but the science contradicts that idea. Not only are BCAAs only three of the nine essential amino acids needed to construct new muscle, leucine and the other BCAAs (isoleucine and valine) experience oxidative degradation during aerobic activity.

BCAAs are Insufficient Pre-Workout

Adding these limited amino acids before your workout, especially in the unbalanced form of BCAAs instead of a complete EAA formula, means that a greater percentage will be oxidized and used for energy instead of muscle building. Your body does not want to be out of balance, so a sudden overabundance of a few amino acids will cause the body to clean up and reduce them in order to maintain equilibrium.

Rather than risk burning off the protein you put in because your body is only looking for energy sources, it’s better to take a full measure of EAAs within the hour after your aerobic workout, when your body is looking for supplies to rebuild. Leucine will be there to prompt muscle protein synthesis, and the rest of the essential amino acids will all be included in the ideal ratio for generating new muscle growth.

EAAs are Effective Pre- and Post-Workout

That being said, taking a complete amino acid protein supplement before an aerobic cardiovascular workout (like a high-intensity interval training or HIIT class), not only provides the necessary ingredients for muscle building, but also helps fight fatigue in a way that only taking BCAAs can’t, by fueling your body with the amino acids that help produce dopamine and serotonin in the brain.

Whether you’re walking, cycling, running stairs, or jumping rope, start by taking your EAA supplement 30 minutes before your workout session. The biggest benefit comes when you take your EAA supplement within an hour after your workout, when your blood flow is strong and active. Not only will the amino acids rush in to replace damaged muscle fibers with new muscle, EAAs can also help calm unnecessary inflammation. That will help quicken your recovery, allowing you to feel only the good side effects of working out, like increased energy and light euphoria, instead of soreness and fatigue.

Resistance Exercise

Best time to take protein: Pre-workout, during, and post-workout

Research has shown that EAAs given 30 minutes before a resistance exercise workout prompt muscle protein synthesis much more effectively than consuming EAAs afterwards does. Taking a protein supplement before this type of workout helps prevent the breakdown of muscle protein during the activity, and also increases blood flow to the muscles, thus getting the amino acids quickly into the muscle where they’re needed.

Consuming EAAs after a resistance workout is not harmful by any means, as that method, too, will prompt the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis, but it’s not ideal to leave the consumption of EAAs until after your resistance training is complete. Our recommendation is to first and foremost take a complete protein supplement before a resistance workout, and if possible take them throughout and/or after as well to get the most benefit.

Bodybuilding

Best time to take protein: Pre- and post-workout, and also before bed.

Immediately before and after a weight-lifting workout, we recommend that you take 15 grams of EAAs each. An EAA supplement has been shown to have a faster effect on muscle protein synthesis than either whey or casein protein alone. However, our Amino Co. blend of free-form EAAs with whey and creatine support ensures that you get a fast dose of EAAs and that the EAAs from whey will digest more slowly as you work out, offering a steady supply to help prevent muscle breakdown. Creatine helps prevent catabolism by supplying faster energy than your body can naturally generate from muscle cell mitochondria. This means more energy for more reps, which ultimately means more work put in and more muscle gained.

An hour after your post-workout dose of EAAs, we recommend another 15-gram dose. On off days, continue taking these same doses, measured between meals instead of surrounding your workout. Lastly, it’s also recommended you take another 15-gram dose before bed to keep your muscles fed as you sleep and to help prevent muscle breakdown as much as possible. You work hard to gain your muscles, and we encourage you to protect those gains at every opportunity. Set your alarm to take one more dose around 4 am if you know you won’t have a problem falling back to sleep, that way your muscles never go hungry for fuel.

It should be noted here that bodybuilders aren’t the only ones who benefit from taking extra protein before bed. One study of 16 elderly men showed that those who consumed casein protein (which digests slowly) before bed had increased muscle growth over those who took a placebo, despite being less active individuals. When you’re sleeping, it’s the protein that counts, and not the activity.

Is There Any Downside to Taking Protein Supplements?

The majority of scientific studies into how our bodies process high amounts of protein show that you can safely consume plenty of protein without risk of harmful side effects. Unless your doctor advises against protein supplements or you have a known kidney issue like rhabdomyolysis, there is no need to worry about excessive protein intake; merely take your products as recommended and spread them throughout your day.

Timing Is Everything

At the end of the day, it’s true that people who work out need more protein, but even those with a less active lifestyle benefit from consuming extra protein for strength, for maintaining healthy weight levels, and for preventing the loss of muscle mass we all experience as we age.

Make a protein shake for breakfast, have another to curb your appetite between meals, and make another as a beneficial treat before bed. Know that the more regularly you take in balanced forms of protein like Amino Co.’s complete EAA blend, the more good you can do for your body. Whether you’re working out or not, upping your daily protein intake is safe and smart. Bulk up, slim down, and stay strong with protein!

How Amino Acids Support Female Muscle Growth

Is it truly more challenging for women to build muscle? To answer that question, we first separate the myths about gender differences and muscle growth from the actual science. Then, we offer tips everyone can use to get serious muscle growth results.

Female muscle growth. It’s not a phrase you hear too often. However, whether you’re a man or a woman, muscle building benefits your overall health and well-being. Strong scientific evidence shows that increasing your lean muscle mass can help you stay healthy as you age, support fat loss by keeping your metabolism running at full capacity and prevent the development of chronic diseases.

If you’re born male, you’re coached from a young age to want to grow up to be big and strong. But if you’re born female, you receive the opposite message. With the emergence of ripped and toned female fitness influencers taking social media by storm, the tides appear to be shifting. Nonetheless, society still tends to instruct girls to train themselves to be as dainty as possible—in part, so they can grow up to be women who attract big, strong men.

But the health benefits of muscle mass apply to everyone, regardless of gender. However, it can be more challenging for women to build muscle for a variety of reasons.

In this article, we’ll explore the scientific realities behind the common belief that muscle building comes more naturally to men than to women. Plus, we’ll offer tips that everyone can use to increase their physical strength and get serious muscle growth results.

Do Men Build Muscle More Easily Than Women?

If you’re at all familiar with the resources out there for people interested in muscle building, you’ve probably noticed that the vast majority of it is written by male authors for male audiences. While that has begun to shift somewhat as more women get into powerlifting, bodybuilding, and sports science, these realms are still dominated by men.

In those realms, a concept that many take for granted is that muscle gains come more easily for men than for women. This concept is propped up by claims that men and women have significant physiological differences that give men an advantage when it comes to physical strength and performance.

 

How amino acids can maximize female muscle growth.

What Science Tells Us About the Differences Between Men and Women

Let’s begin by comparing the average metabolic rates—the calories you burn just by going about your day—for men and women. According to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, about 90% of the variations researchers identified in the baseline number of calories participants expended over a 24-hour period came down to differences in fat mass and muscle mass. Your age has a measurable impact too. Researchers found that participants between 50 and 65 years of age had baseline metabolic rates that were 4.6% lower than participants between the ages of 20 and 30.

Fascinatingly, they reported: “No sex difference in any energy expenditure measurement could be found.” However, women do tend to have slower metabolisms than men, but it’s not because they’re women, it’s because on average, women are smaller and have less muscle mass.

So, let’s look into muscle mass differences. Findings published in the Journal of Applied Physiology reveal that women have, on average, about 67% of the muscle mass men do.

Women lag further behind when it comes to the muscle groups of the upper body than those of the lower body. A research team from the departments of Physical Education and Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada set out to determine how gender differences influence strength and muscle fiber characteristics. They found that female participants had approximately 52% of the upper body strength and 66% of the lower body strength of men.

These differences appear to have more to do with the likelihood that men will have larger muscles than with innate sex-based differences, though. A study published in Ergonomics sought to measure the extent to which differences in strength between men and women can be explained by muscle size. Researchers found that when they adjusted their findings to take into account overall muscle mass as well as the size of specific muscle groups, 97% of sex-related differences were in strength. The researchers state that their findings suggest muscle size “almost entirely” accounts for the differences we expect to see between a man’s physical strength and a woman’s. In other words, if a man and woman have comparable muscle mass, they should be equally strong.

It appears that the vast majority of the differences we attribute to sex actually have to do with body composition. A woman and man with similar previous experience in terms of physical activity and comparative amounts of muscle and fat will perform similarly on standard measures of strength.

However, there are some differences between the ways men’s bodies and women’s bodies tend to respond to strength-training regimens and individual workout plans.

How Hormones Affect Female Muscle Growth

Hormones tend to be the first factor people point to when talking about physiological differences between women and men. It’s only logical, given that men’s increased muscle mass results from higher testosterone levels. Hormone levels fluctuate from person to person and over time, but on average, women produce far less testosterone than men do—between 15 and 20 times less, according to data sourced from the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

However, the question of testosterone levels isn’t as clear cut as we tend to think. In fact, some men have lower testosterone levels than some women do. After a team of researchers from the U.K. analyzed the hormone levels of elite athletes, they found significant overlap between testosterone levels for male competitors and female competitors. It’s worth noting that the hormone profiles of elite athletes differ from those of average individuals. It’s also highly likely that women with naturally higher levels of testosterone are more likely to excel at the elite level in certain physical disciplines. The main takeaway is that the idea that men have higher testosterone levels and therefore build new muscle more easily doesn’t entirely hold up.

Furthermore, did you know that testosterone is not the only hormone involved in building muscle mass? Estrogen, which as you may know, women typically produce at higher levels than men do, has also been shown to have significant benefits for muscle growth.

Studies done with animal subjects and well-controlled studies with human subjects support the idea that estrogen can help to prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue that often accompanies the aging process. It appears that estrogen has an overall positive impact when it comes to maintaining and increasing your lean muscle mass.

And an article published in Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews presented experimental findings suggesting that estrogen may have an anabolic effect on muscles, meaning it supports muscle gain. It appears to do this primarily by lowering protein turnover, which slows the rate of catabolism (muscle breakdown), and enhancing the sensitivity of muscle tissue to resistance training.

Estrogen also boosts your metabolism, making it easier to cut your body fat percentage. While that doesn’t directly contribute to muscle growth, it does mean the new muscles you build will be more visible.

Women and Men Build Different Types of Muscles

We all have two general types of skeletal muscle fibers: slow-twitch, or Type 1, and fast-twitch, or Type 2. Type 1 muscles help power you through feats of endurance, like marathons. And the more Type 2 muscles you have, the better you perform on tests of explosive strength, like Olympic weight training.

There’s a clear divide between the average percentages of Type 1 and Type 2 muscle fibers that women and men typically have. According to Greg Nuckols, an experienced fitness writer who holds a BS in Exercise and Sports Science and three all-time world records for powerlifting, women typically have more Type 1 muscle fibers than men do, about 27% to 35% more. Women also tend to have greater capillary density.

Both give women an advantage in many ways. Greater capillary density means an increased ability to circulate blood through your muscle tissue to bring in fresh oxygen and clear out waste products. And having a higher percentage of Type 1 muscle fibers gives you an improved capacity for glucose and fatty acid oxidation, which translates to a decreased risk of chronic conditions linked to metabolic health, like diabetes and heart disease.

However, Type 2 muscle fibers are thicker, quicker to contract, and engage when your body nears maximum exertion. If you’re looking to increase your muscle mass and build strength so you can lift heavier and heavier weights, you need to recruit your Type 2 muscles. There’s no evidence that Type 1 muscle fibers can be transformed into Type 2 muscle fibers (or vice versa), which means there may always be a gap between the level of explosive strength an experienced female weight lifter can generate and the amount a male lifter at the same level can generate.

Maximizing Muscle Growth as a Woman

While men may have some innate advantages when it comes to building muscle mass, studies show that both men and women gain muscle at the same rate when they commit to workout routines like resistance training, weight training, and high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

Researchers from the University of Maryland Exercise Science and Wellness Research Laboratories conducted a study in which participants committed to a 6-month, whole-body strength-training program that worked for all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower bodies.

They used MRI images to assess thigh and quadriceps muscle volume as well as mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area before and after the strength-training program. Their findings showed that the thigh and quadriceps muscle volume increased significantly for all age and gender groups as a result of the strength-training program. The researchers found no significant differences related to either participant age or gender.

In some cases, women can make more significant strength and muscle gains than men. A study published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine examined how men and women responded to weight-training and resistance-training approaches. The researchers found that after following the same short-term training program, female participants made more significant strength increases than male participants did.

For women interested in optimizing their body composition by decreasing their body fat percentages and increasing their muscle mass, there are certain strategies you can put in place to maximize your muscle-building potential.

Train Strategically

When it comes to building muscle, the first step is to institute a strength-training regimen. For those seeking to rapidly increase muscle growth who are comfortable and able to perform high-intensity workouts, the most effective strength-training approach will involve lifting increasingly heavy weights. That might mean using barbell, kettlebells, dumbbells, or other types of weights.

Incorporating weightlifting into your training sessions encourages muscle growth because of the strain it places on your muscles. This wear and tear breaks down the muscle tissues. Then, during the recovery process that takes place while you sleep and on rest days, your muscles rebuild themselves. Each time this process takes place, your muscles grow bigger and stronger.

Adding high-intensity interval training to your exercise routine can also increase your muscle gains. This method of training involves short burst of intense exertion—a great tactic for recruiting your Type 2 muscles.

Increase Your Protein Intake

As you know, your muscles are made up of proteins. In order for your muscles to successfully rebuild themselves after workouts, you need to provide them with an adequate supply of dietary protein.

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to the question of how much protein your muscles need to properly build and repair themselves. Factors like age, weight, activity level, and training goals will all influence the amount of protein an individual needs to consume.

Federal guidelines set the minimum recommended amount of protein consumption for adults at 17% to 21% of your daily calories, and that’s without taking weight training into consideration.

As Jim White, RD, ACSM, explained, resistance training increases the process of protein turnover. By eating proteins laden with all the essential amino acids, you’re providing your body with the raw materials it needs to build muscle.

According to the American College of Sports Medicine, if you’re looking to build muscle mass, you should aim to consume between 0.5 and 0.8 grams of protein per pound of body weight. That means a 150-pound woman, for example, should set a protein intake target of 75-120 grams of protein each day. It’s also important to consider the percentage of your overall calorie intake that comes from protein.

White, as well as other experts, recommends prioritizing the post-workout window for protein consumption as this has the biggest impact on muscle growth. Findings published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition indicate that protein consumption before workouts can also be a key factor. Eating protein both before and after workouts can boost your performance, speed your recovery time, and increase your lean muscle mass.

Amino Acids Can Boost Female Muscle Growth

While it’s entirely possible to meet your body’s protein needs through diet alone, it can be helpful to add in high-quality supplements, including protein powders. Especially if you have a busy schedule that makes it challenging to consume enough protein during meal or snack times, it can be highly beneficial to provide your body with amino acids from other sources.

Researchers have found that certain supplements can be particularly helpful when it comes to building and maintaining muscle mass. If you’re wondering about the best amino acids for muscle growth, here are three to consider.

How amino acids can maximize female muscle growth.

1. Creatine

Creatine, an amino acid compound found naturally in the human body as well as in foods like red meat, has been the subject of hundreds of studies. If you’re lifting weights and looking to amplify your results, you may want to consider supplementing with creatine.

Media reports may have lead you to believe that creatine supplementation can adversely impact the health of your kidneys, but scientists have repeatedly and conclusively found that not to be the case.

After going over all available data on the short-, medium-, and long-term effects of creatine supplementation, researchers from the Higher Institute of Physical Education and Readaptation in Brussels, Belgium found no evidence that creatine causes liver dysfunction in healthy individuals (individuals with pre-existing kidney disease should avoid creatine). The researchers concluded that individuals who take creatine “do not report any adverse effects, but body mass increases.” They also noted that creatine may benefit the health of your heart and help reduce your risk of neurological diseases.

Studies show that supplementing with creatine can increase your lean body mass, enhance your anaerobic working capacity, and minimize the muscle damage caused by extreme exertion.

2. Beta-Alanine

This naturally occurring amino acid has also been the subject of extensive research.

One reason for this is that beta-alanine is the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, an amino acid found in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle. One study on the effects of beta-alanine supplementation found that it can increase concentrations of carnosine in your muscles, which in turn helps to prevent muscular fatigue.

A separate study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found pairing beta-alanine supplementation with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can substantially increase both endurance and aerobic metabolism. It also showed a clear and impressive impact on subjects’ lean muscle mass.

Plus, a third study that examined how beta-alanine impacted anaerobic power output by using tests of physical strength such as timed sprints and a 90° bent-arm hang found that supplementing with beta-alanine improved participants’ results across all categories. Participants who supplemented with beta-alanine were able to achieve simultaneous weight loss and lean body mass increases.

3. Citrulline

Supplementing with citrulline can significantly increase your blood levels of not only this important amino acid, but two other crucial amino acids as well: ornithine and arginine. This can have a wide range of health benefits.

According to findings published in the The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, even a single dose of citrulline can improve your physical performance as measured by a flat barbell bench press. It can also reduce post-exercise muscle soreness. Participants were able to complete approximately 53% more repetitions and reported 40% less muscle soreness at both 24 and 48 hours afterward.

A separate study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine showed that citrulline reduced muscular fatigue and improved muscle metabolism as measured by oxidative ATP production and the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise.

All in all, it appears that this amino acid can improve endurance and speed up recovery time.

Greater Than the Sum of the Parts

Your muscles aren’t composed of single amino acids, but rather 20 separate amino acids. Building muscle mass requires a steady supply of all those amino acids. Nine of those are essential amino acids, meaning you must get them from the foods you eat or supplements you take.

While certain amino acids have been shown to have more dramatic results when it comes to muscle growth, your rate of muscle protein synthesis will be limited by whichever essential amino acid is in the shortest supply. That’s why some of the foremost experts on amino acids believe that taking an essential amino acid (EAA) blend is ultimately the most effective way to build your muscle mass. Using a supplement formulated to include all the required amino acid building blocks stimulates the production of new muscle tissue more effectively than any single amino acid could.

What to Look for in a Memory Test and 5 Healthy Ways to Boost Memory

Age-related memory loss affects millions of adults in the United States. In fact, according to the Alzheimer’s Association, one in three senior citizens die with dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. If you have started to notice signs of memory loss in yourself or someone you love, you are likely looking for a memory test that can give you a definitive diagnosis.

The Internet is filled with websites offering an online memory test, and while these tests may help you identify a problem, you need to see a neurologist for a legitimate memory test that can give you the answers you are seeking. In the meantime, there are ways you can improve memory and overall cognitive function with dietary and lifestyle changes.

What Are the 3 Types of Memory?

The human brain stores and processes bits of information in three different ways. If you are struggling with memory and researching online, you will likely come across the questions “what are the 3 stages of memory” as well as “what are the 3 types of memory.” In truth, these are the same questions—there are three types, or three stages of memory in the human brain—sensory, short term, and long term. Let’s take a look at the differences.

Sensory Memory

This is the shortest-term memory responsible for buffering external stimuli received from one of the five senses. Information processed in sensory memory degrades rapidly—somewhere in the range of 200 to 500 milliseconds before it “released.”

Short-term Memory

Short-term memory is held longer than sensory memory. However, unless we consciously focus on retaining specific bits of information it will fade away. Short-term memory is also referred to as working memory because the data stored here is required for everyday activities and tasks. An initial memory test conducted by a neurologist will likely focus on short-term memory capacity and recall ability.

Long-term Memory

Long-term memory is where data is stored for long periods of time. When you think of your 2nd grade teacher or remember the first time you flew in an airplane, you are tapping into your long-term memory stores. Most neurologists and psychologists break down long-term memory even further into “conscious” and “unconscious” memory.

What Is Memory in Psychology?

Psychologists recognize that memory is what makes us who we are. The three types of memory are what allow us to function healthfully in everyday life. Sensory memories spur us to remove our hand from a hot stove. Short-term memories allow us to recall the name of a person we just met. And long-term memories can transport us back to a place and time in vivid detail.

Types of Age-Related Memory Loss

As we age, our short-term memory starts to degrade. We may begin to forget where we put our keys or where we parked at the mall, or have difficulty recalling a name. This is all a regular part of the aging process. Additionally, certain vitamin deficiencies, hormone disorders, head traumas, and medications can cause memory loss that is reversible.

However, when memory loss persists, worsens, and starts to affect our ability to manage our day-to-day lives, it is time to seek counsel and have a memory test. There are four diseases, separate from natural aging, that cause progressive damage to the brain.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common disease that causes memory loss. Early symptoms of this disease include changes in personality, depression, social withdrawal, loss of inhibitions, irritability, delusions, and wandering. It is essential to have a memory test conducted by a neurologist to determine if you have Alzheimer’s disease, as there are medications that can help slow its progression.

Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is a general term that describes memory and thought problems caused by reduced blood flow to the brain. Vascular dementia symptoms can come on suddenly after a stroke or a series of mini-strokes and are generally more rapid than the gradual, but steady decline in memory for those with Alzheimer’s disease.

Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia is a term used for a group of relatively uncommon disorders that affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These disorders can physically cause certain areas of the brain to shrink, and a definitive cause is hard to find. Frontotemporal dementia causes more than memory loss—speech and behavior changes can be expected. Additionally, movement disorders similar to Parkinson’s disease may occur concurrently.

Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy body dementia is the second most common type of progressive memory loss after Alzheimer’s disease. This brain disease is caused by protein deposits called Lewy bodies that develop in nerve cells in the thinking, memory, and motor control regions of the brain. The symptoms of Lewy body dementia do worsen and can cause severe memory loss, aggressive behavior, unrelenting depression, and worsening of motor-related functions.

5 Healthy Ways to Boost Memory

Diet, stress, exercise, sleep, and genetics all play a role in memory loss. Here are five ways to help boost memory and protect your brain from dementia.

1. Take an Amino Acid Supplement

Amino acids play key roles in protecting the brain. If your diet is deficient in amino acids, your brain may not have the fuel it needs for proper memory storage and recall. Amino acid supplements are a great way to combat a poor diet and help you get the nutrients your brain needs to thrive.

2. Avoid Medications Linked to Poor Memory

Specific medications, including those formulated to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia, have been linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline and memory loss. Talk to your doctor about safe alternatives and potential natural remedies like amino acids for depression, insomnia, and anxiety.

3. Manage Stress

Chronic stress impacts the brain and can cause temporary memory loss. In fact, according to a recent report published in the journal Chronic Stress, stress causes an imbalance in the circuitry of the brain affecting cognition, anxiety, mood, and decision-making. It is important to find the right balance of lifestyle changes and natural supplements to help you reduce stress.

4. Exercise

Get moving—and stay moving. Regular exercise increases blood flood to your brain, which may boost both short-term and long-term memory. According to Harvard Medical School, regular exercise changes the brain and improves memory and thinking skills.

How rigorously do you need to exercise? You just have to walk at a good pace! Research shows that getting your heart-pumping 120 minutes a week is all that is necessary to improve memory.

5. Keep Your Brain in Gear

To keep your brain healthy and to support proper memory function and recall, you need to exercise your brain as well as your body. Find brain exercises you enjoy, and stick with them for at least 30 minutes every day. Here are some inventive ways to stretch your mind.

  • Learn a new language
  • Learn to paint or sculpt
  • Do a crossword puzzle
  • Crochet or knit
  • Put together a large puzzle
  • Do math in your head
  • Play memory games

What to Look for in a Memory Test

As mentioned above, there are many diseases, conditions, and medications that can cause poor memory and declining cognitive function. It is vital that you speak to your doctor about any concerns you may have.

The first step in determining the root cause of your memory loss will be a physical examination and some blood tests and imaging tests. If your medical team decides that your memory loss is caused by physical trauma, stroke, or medication, a treatment plan will be created.

Unfortunately, there is no definitive physical test for Alzheimer’s disease. If your physician believes there is a possibility you may have a form of dementia, you will likely be referred to a neurologist for a neurological examination, brain imaging, and a memory test.

The MMSE and the Mini-Cog are two main types of memory tests that are commonly administered by a neurological team. Both of these tests are short and will give your doctor a snapshot of your short-term memory and recall ability.

The MMSE tests mental skills and cognition. The test administrator asks a series of questions relating to everyday tasks and necessary cognitive skills. The Mini-Cog only requires you to complete two tasks. The first task is to draw the face of a clock with all 12 numbers on it. The second task is to remember and repeat the names of three ordinary objects repeated to you by the test administrator.

Yes, there are a ton of Alzheimer’s tests and memory tests online but none of them have been scientifically proven to be accurate. In fact, they may provide false-positive results according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Instead of risking a poor outcome, talk to your doctor if you are concerned about memory loss and cognitive decline.

Hyaluronic Acid Benefits More Than Just Your Skin!

Countless beauty products tout hyaluronic acid’s ability to fight acne, age spots, and wrinkles. Dermatologists use hyaluronic acid to plump lips and other tissue, and some in the industry refer to it as the “fountain of youth.” But hyaluronic acid benefits extend far beyond topical skin care.

In the human body, hyaluronic acid is found in joints and the eyes where it acts as a protective lubricant. The FDA has approved hyaluronic acid for use during cataract surgery, corneal transplants, and other eye surgeries to replace the eye’s natural fluids during these procedures.

What Is Hyaluronic Acid?

Hyaluronic acid is essentially a lubricant that plays a role in cushioning joints and surrounding connective tissues and keeping the eyes moist and hydrated. In research, hyaluronic acid is often referred to as hyaluronan. This naturally occurring lubricant binds to water molecules and creates a texture similar to gelatin.

Health Benefits of Hyaluronic Acid

3 Internal Health Benefits of Hyaluronic Acid

Anti-aging products may be the most well-known use for hyaluronic acid, but research proves it offers extraordinary health benefits, including in the fight against cancer.

1. Delivers Chemotherapy Drugs Efficiently

According to a study published in the Journal of Surgical Research, when hyaluronan is used as a drug delivery method in the fight against breast cancer, it effectively targets lymphatic metastases without damaging surrounding tissue in animal trials. The researchers of the study urge human trials to determine the full potential of hyaluronic acid as a chemotherapy drug carrier.

Supporting the above study, a recent study published in the journal Drug Delivery states that hyaluronic acid can act as a delivery vehicle for certain medications, including chemotherapy drugs. The researchers point out that hyaluronic acid has the ability to recognize specific receptors on tumor cells and that larger scale clinical trials are necessary. There are currently 44 clinical trials studying hyaluronic acid and its safety and efficacy in the treatment of a wide range of cancers.

2. Relieves Pain Associated with Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that affects an estimated 70% of people over the age of 65. Over time, this type of arthritis pain becomes more and more difficult to relieve, which leads to limited mobility and poor balance.

The human body’s production of hyaluronic acid slows as we age, causing the tissue around the joints to have less cushion and lubrication and resulting in pain. Hyaluronic acid injections are approved by the FDA for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, and research indicates hyaluronic acid injections can provide up to six months of pain relief.

Partnering hyaluronic injections with an osteoarthritis diet rich in healthy oils, cold-water fish, nuts and seeds, and green leafy vegetables may improve pain levels. The foods highest in hyaluronic acid include:

  • Sweet potatoes
  • Jicama
  • Jerusalem artichokes
  • Lemons
  • Oranges
  • Grapefruit
  • Tomatoes
  • Leafy greens
  • Bone broth

3. Supports Intestinal Wound Healing

Researchers from the Cleveland Clinic’s Lerner Research Institute have found that hyaluronan fights inflammation and promotes healing of the intestines in multiple clinical trials. The author of the report points to chronic inflammation as being a “major predisposing factor to fibrosis in all organs including the intestine” and states that hyaluronan may promote natural healing processes in the gastrointestinal tract as inflammation decreases.

Hyaluronic Acid Benefits for Skin

Now that we’ve addressed what hyaluronic acid can do inside the body, let’s take a look at why many skin care companies use hyaluronic acid as a key ingredient in their products. A clinical study published in the journal Dermato-Endocrinology showed that hyaluronic acid exhibits different traits than other skin care ingredients.

The authors of the study indicate that hyaluronic acid demonstrates a unique capacity for retaining moisture and the ability to work within different layers of the skin. The study specifically notes that skin health and texture is affected by hormonal changes, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and aging, and that further study of hyaluronic acid could lead to “novel treatments” in skin aging.

Take a look at hyaluronic acid’s benefits for the skin.

  • Hydrates dry skin: Hyaluronic acid may promote proper moisture in the skin—even oily skin—without causing acne.
  • Increases cell turnover: Hyaluronic acid is believed to increase cell turnover, leaving the skin smooth and vibrant.
  • Tightens saggy skin: Hyaluronic acid may tighten saggy skin and improve elasticity, thereby creating a better overall complexion and texture.
  • Diminishes fine lines and wrinkles: Hyaluronic acid helps to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by plumping up the areas with moisture.
  • Creates a smooth canvas: Hyaluronic acid in serum form smoothes out the skin, allowing makeup to glide over and not nestle into imperfections.

5 Signs of Amino Acid Deficiency and How to Treat It

You probably know that between 60% and 70% of the average human body is composed of water. But did you know that protein makes up approximately 66% of the non-water components of your body? As you may remember from biology class, amino acids form the building blocks of protein. In the same way that it’s vital to drink water to stay hydrated, it’s also absolutely necessary to provide our bodies with an ongoing supply of amino acids to make up for those used up rebuilding our tissues and carrying out other important bodily functions. Without an adequate intake of amino-rich foods, you’re likely to develop an amino acid deficiency.

Amino acid deficiency often gets overlooked, and when left untreated it makes it more likely you’ll develop a whole host of serious disorders. In this article, we’ll go over some basic facts about amino acids and then share five signs of amino acid deficiency as well as how to correct amino acid deficiency.

What Are Amino Acids?

Scientists have found that when we select food, our first instinctive priority is to meet our short-term energy needs. And right behind that comes the maintenance of our essential amino acids balance. When you eat food that contains protein, your body then breaks it down in order to access and utilize the amino acids.

Amino acids carry out a wide variety of vital functions inside the human body, from building muscles to generating neurotransmitters like dopamine. We need a steady supply of a balanced ratio of amino acids to maintain optimal levels inside our bodies. When we’re under stress, or dealing with illness or injury, we require an even higher intake to meet the increased demand.

There are 20 proteinogenic amino acids—”proteinogenic” means “protein creating,” and as you might be able to intuit, these amino acids form all biological proteins and all contribute to our overall health and well-being in different ways. For instance, research reveals that leucine, isoleucine, and valine, the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), work to build and repair muscle tissue. While there’s understandably a great deal of interest in determining the role of each individual amino acid, it’s important to keep in mind that they can only carry out those roles effectively when the proper balance and concentration of all the amino acids is in place.

Eleven of the proteinogenic amino acids are deemed nonessential. Since your body can produce these nonessential amino acids, it’s not essential that you derive them from your diet. The nonessential amino acids are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

The remaining nine are essential amino acids that you must obtain either from the food you eat or supplements you take since your body cannot independently create them. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucin, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Some amino acids are considered conditionally essential. This category can be a bit confusing. Basically, when everything is going smoothly, your body can make these amino acids on its own without any difficulty. But if your health is compromised in some way, for instance, if your liver is functioning less than ideally, that can get in the way of amino acid synthesis. Poor diet can also cause problems, since certain minerals and vitamins play important roles in the amino acid creation process. Under those circumstances, your body can greatly benefit from an increased intake of the seven conditionally essential amino acids: arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

There are 11 nonessential amino acids that your body can produce, meaning there’s not a minimum recommended dietary intake.

How Do Amino Acids Work?

As we touched on in the previous section, amino acids do not work in isolation. It’s true that each has a specific function, but simply increasing your intake of one particular amino acid will not necessarily make that function happen more efficiently.

Take arginine. Research shows that arginine stimulates the production of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that’s especially important for vasodilation. In simple terms, nitric oxide allows the inner muscles of your blood vessels to relax, which improves your circulation. You might think that the best way to boost your nitric oxide levels would be to take more arginine. But studies make it clear that taking arginine supplements doesn’t lead to significantly increased arginine concentrations. What’s more effective is to increase your intake of citrulline, which your body then converts to arginine your body can readily use for nitric oxide production and other purposes.

As you can see, amino acids work together to maintain your health and well-being. It’s very rare to develop a deficiency of just one amino acid. The most effective strategy is to focus on keeping your amino acid levels in balance by eating a protein-rich diet and supplementing with well-formulated amino acid supplements if necessary.

5 Signs of Amino Acid Deficiency

5 Signs You May Have an Amino Acid Deficiency

1. Muscle Loss

Our bodies have systems in place to compensate for a lack of dietary amino acid intake. One of the first things that happens is the breakdown of muscle tissues, which are assembled from amino acids. Amino acids are then sent where they’re most needed, for instance, to maintain heart function. As you may be able to guess, eating away at your muscle to fuel your heart is not a sustainable strategy and can have serious consequences.

No matter what, some degree of muscle loss, often (incorrectly) called sarcopenia, will accompany the aging process. A lack of amino acids, however, speeds up that process, which can begin as early as your 30s.

2. Increased Anxiety and Depression

There’s an intimate connection between your amino acid intake and your mental health. We rely on amino acids to produce brain chemicals like serotonin that balance our moods and emotions.

Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is a precursor to serotonin. When serotonin levels drop, symptoms of depression increase. A 2016 study found that without an adequate supply of tryptophan, serotonin production is compromised, which can, in turn, compromise your mental health.

3. Difficulty Concentrating

If you’re feeling unmotivated, struggling to concentrate, finding it difficult to learn new information, or dealing with “brain fog,” you may have low amino acid levels. As we touched on above, you need amino acids to produce neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.

Without enough tyrosine, a conditionally essential amino acid, your brain struggles to produce dopamine. And without enough dopamine, your energy levels will flag and your overall cognitive function will decline.

4. Digestive Disturbances

In order for the digestive system to operate smoothly, we need a balanced intake of amino acids, which play crucial roles in enzyme production as well as muscle contractions in your gastrointestinal tract.

Amino acids have such a pronounced impact on digestion that they may even be used to treat certain gut-related diseases, according to a study.

5. Slowed Healing Time

Amino acids help our muscles recover from exertion, maintain the strength of our bones, and keep our immune systems running at peak capacity.

A 2009 study showed that amino acids help bone fractures heal more quickly, and findings published in the British Journal of Nutrition show that a deficiency in amino acids impairs immune function and increases your susceptibility to illness.

The Best Way to Correct Amino Acid Deficiency

Once you’ve realized you have an amino acid deficiency, there’s likely only one question on your mind: how to correct an amino acid deficiency. To stabilize your amino acid levels, you need to increase the amount of amino acids you’re consuming. It can be difficult to do this in a balanced way through diet alone, especially if you aren’t inclined to eat a diet high in animal protein.

And balance is absolutely key. The amino acid that we consume the least of, proportionate to recommended consumption levels, determines the degree to which our bodies can utilize the rest of the amino acids we take in.

Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements can help to fill any gaps you might have in your diet. If you’re already experiencing any of the signs of amino acid deficiency listed above, it can be highly beneficial to augment your amino acid intake with a high-quality EAA supplement.

Best Amino Acids for Muscle Growth

The best amino acids for muscle growth tip the balance in favor of muscle protein synthesis. And making a complete protein requires adequate availability of each of the amino acids. Read on to find out the formulation of amino acids that is best for building muscle.

Before we get into the best amino acids for muscle growth, let’s first review the makeup of muscle. Muscle tissue is composed of a variety of proteins that are in a constant state of turnover—proteins that are no longer functioning well are being broken down and new ones are being produced. Muscle growth occurs when the rate of synthesis of new muscle protein exceeds the rate of breakdown.

Muscle protein is composed of 20 different amino acids hooked together in a specific order. Nine of the amino acids are essential amino acids (EAAs) and cannot be produced in the body. The other 11 are nonessential (NEAAs) and can be produced in adequate amounts within the body.

Muscle protein synthesis (the building of new muscle protein) involves a series of molecular events that result in the component amino acids being linked together in a specific order. For this reason, amino acids are often called the building blocks of protein. Making a complete protein, therefore, requires adequate availability of each of the amino acids. In that sense, there is no individual best amino acids for muscle growth, because they are all required to produce muscle protein. Rather, there are formulations of amino acids that are “best” for specific circumstances, such as building muscle.

Where Do Amino Acids Come from for Muscle Protein Synthesis?

When protein is broken down during muscle protein turnover, amino acids are released into muscle cells. Most of these amino acids become the precursors for the synthesis of new muscle protein. However, some of the amino acids from protein breakdown are released into the blood and delivered to other tissues and organs, and still other amino acids from protein breakdown are irreversibly oxidized/damaged. Therefore, the rate of reincorporation of amino acids from protein breakdown into newly synthesized muscle protein will always be less than the rate of protein breakdown. Without other sources of amino acids, a reduction of muscle protein and subsequent muscle loss occurs.

There are two ways to get the additional amino acids you need for muscle protein synthesis.

  1. They are produced in the body. (NEAAs can be produced in the body, so only a minimal amount must be consumed in the diet to meet all demands.)
  2. EAAs, on the other hand, cannot be produced in the body and must be consumed in the diet.

Research shows that consuming EAAs stimulates muscle protein synthesis and helps build muscle, but eating more NEAAs doesn’t add any further stimulus. When EAAs are consumed, the additional NEAAs required for the production of complete proteins are produced in the body. Ingesting EAAs, either as dietary protein or as amino acid supplements, shifts the balance between synthesis and breakdown of muscle protein to favor the net production of new muscle protein, which defines muscle gain.

What Are the Best Amino Acids for Muscle Growth?

Muscle protein is composed of a specific amount of each amino acid, hooked together in a specific order. In that sense, all the amino acids are equally important, as a shortage of any of them will stop the process of synthesis.

The EAA in shortest supply is called the limiting EAA. The availability of the limiting EAA will limit the rate of muscle protein synthesis, regardless of the availability of all the other EAAs and NEAAs. Therefore, you could say that the limiting amino acid in any formulation of EAAs is the most important.

This is the major problem with supplements that only have the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Since the other essential amino acids are not provided, the rate of muscle protein synthesis is not improved. Because of this, BCAA supplements have been proven to provide a far smaller effect on muscle growth than a complete EAA formulation.

It is possible to gain insight into the amount of each EAA that is needed to avoid that EAA being the limiting EAA by looking at the requirements for the individual EAAs. By definition, NEAAs are not required in the diet, so when we talk about dietary requirements we are talking only about EAA requirements. The dietary requirement for each EAA differs. Here are the daily requirements for EAAs for adults as published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO).

Best Amino Acids for muscle growth

The requirements are based on a number of factors, including the composition of total body protein. From the requirements shown above, it is clear that all EAAs are not “equal.” The requirements for leucine and lysine are the highest, while the requirement for tryptophan is quite low.

It could be argued that the best amino acids for muscle building parallel the individual requirements of the EAAs. Indeed, that is the basis for the official FAO/WHO grading of protein quality, called the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS). Indeed, an EAA supplement that closely parallels this distribution will be an effective stimulant of muscle protein synthesis in any circumstance. The bottom line is that you need all the essential amino acids to have any effect on muscle mass, and any nonessential amino acid need not be included in a dietary supplement.

Leucine for Muscle Growth

There has been considerable research over the past 15 years that indicates that alternative mixtures of EAAs may be more beneficial in particular circumstances. Most of the research has centered on the EAA leucine. In addition to being the most abundant EAA in body protein, under certain circumstances, leucine can function to regulate molecular processes within the muscle cell. In those circumstances, it can be called a “nutraceutical.”

Leucine can activate the molecule called mTOR, which gets muscle protein synthesis started. Various conditions associated with progressive muscle breakdown and loss of muscle strength, such as cancer, heart failure, and aging, can suppress the activity of mTOR and associated molecules. When mTOR activity is limited, it may be preferable to increase the proportion of leucine to as high as 35% to activate mTOR. At the same time, activation of mTOR and associated molecules in the muscle cell is not sufficient to increase muscle protein synthesis. You also need an abundance of all EAAs to produce complete proteins. Therefore it is necessary to limit the proportion of leucine in an effective dietary supplement to below 40% so that sufficient amounts of the other EAAs can be included.

If extra leucine is added to a dietary supplement such as whey protein powder to capitalize on its action as a nutraceutical, then the remainder of the supplement should provide the other EAAs in proportion to their contribution to the composition of muscle protein. It seems logical that this would be dictated entirely by the composition of muscle protein, but it is not quite so straightforward.

The absorbed ratios of the different EAAs will not be directly reflected in the EAAs inside the muscle cells because some amino acids are transported into the cell faster than others. Lysine, in particular, is transported sluggishly into the muscle. When lysine is consumed, less lysine will enter the muscle cell than would be expected from the profile of the consumed EAAs. Consequently, to increase the lysine concentration inside the muscle cell in proportion to the lysine content of muscle protein it is necessary that lysine comprise 20% or more of the total EAAs consumed to achieve the maximal muscle-building effect.

Different Strokes for Different Folks

The most effective EAA supplement for muscle growth will have all the EAAs and roughly parallel the requirements cited above. However, alternative formulations may be “best” in different situations. For example, while a high proportion of leucine may be best for older individuals with heart failure, a disproportionate amount of leucine may not be needed by a young athlete after a resistance workout. This is because the resistance workout will activate mTOR and associated molecules, and if the proportion of leucine is in line with the composition of muscle protein (around 23%), then relatively more of all the other EAAs needed to produce complete protein can be included in the supplement.

Even the optimal formulation for exercise might vary, depending on when the supplement is consumed and the type of exercise. For example, endurance training causes a selective increase in leucine oxidation, in which case a supplement high in leucine would be optimal as a post-workout supplement following exercise to speed up muscle recovery.

If the EAA supplement is meant to be consumed as a pre-workout supplement for exercise performance, it may be formulated to optimize the concentrations of neurotransmitter precursor availability in addition to providing EAAs for muscle protein synthesis.

Regardless of the specific circumstance it is meant for, the “best” formulation will include all the EAAs and not just the BCAAs or specific amino acids like beta-alanine or arginine. A complete formulation will more effectively stimulate the production of new muscle protein than any individual or sub-group of EAAs possibly can.

9 Natural Remedies for Back Pain Relief

Few things can be as immediately disabling as back pain. Looking for back pain relief? Here are some natural remedies that can help get the pain off your back.

Few things can be as immediately disabling as back pain. Our backs are a delicate and complex structure of muscles, ligaments, joints, and bones. Back pain can be caused by a wide range of injuries, dehydration, inflammation, and certain underlying health conditions, and back pain relief can be difficult to come by.

Be it acute or chronic, back pain causes a reduction in physical activity, lost productivity at work, and overall poor quality of life scores according to a study published in the journal European Spine. 

Low back pain is incredibly common, not only in the United States but also globally. In fact, according to findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study, low back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Fortunately, there are effective natural pain management remedies that can help you enjoy life to the fullest.

Are You at Risk for Back Pain?

Nearly everyone will experience some type of back pain over the course of a year. According to a National Center for Health Statistics 2016 report, during 2012 more than 125 million adults in the United States had a musculoskeletal pain disorder. This staggering figure accounts for more than 50% of the U.S. adult population.

It must be noted that musculoskeletal pain is classified as pain related to nerves, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and bones, not just in the back. The Cleveland Clinic also puts fibromyalgia, arthritic pain, and carpal tunnel syndrome in the same category.

In the general population, researchers report the lifetime prevalence of back pain high at 85%. This surprising statistic comes from a comprehensive review conducted by researchers from the Department of Sports Medicine and Sports Nutrition in Germany.

This same review also found that in athletes, the lifetime prevalence can be as high as 94%, and it identifies rowing and cross-country skiing as sports with the greatest risk.

Of course, there are also risk factors for chronic pain conditions, such as occupations that increase your likelihood of suffering an injury to the back muscles or sustaining muscle pain. In a review of the National Health Interview Survey completed by the National Institutes of Health, the following occupations have the highest rate of low back pain—attributed directly to the job:

  • Construction and Extraction: 11.22%
  • Healthcare Practitioners and Healthcare Support: 10.61%
  • Personal Care and Service: 8.27%
  • Transportation and Moving: 7.74%

Your risk for developing back pain increases according to a cross-sectional study published in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases if you:

  • Are obese
  • Smoke
  • Are inactive
  • Have family members with chronic back pain

Types of Back Pain

Back pain can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute back pain can last anywhere from 4 to 12 weeks, and generally does not require traditional medical intervention. However, when back pain persists or worsens for 12 weeks or longer, the pain is considered chronic, and a consultation with your health care provider is advised.

Pain in the back can present in the:

  • Lower back
  • Middle back
  • Upper back
  • Neck and shoulders
  • Glutes

Back pain can be described as:

  • Nagging
  • Radiating
  • Throbbing
  • Pinching
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe

Keeping a journal of your pain can help you find a successful treatment. Take note of the type of pain, severity, when it occurs and for how long, the location of the pain, and what you were doing when it occurred. These details can help your wellness team identify the best course of action to relieve your back pain naturally.

Common Causes of Back Pain

According to Weill Cornell Medicine’s Center for Comprehensive Spine Care, there is a wide range of injuries and medical conditions that can cause back pain. Their list includes:

Muscle injuries and muscle strains Vertebral fractures Pregnancy
Spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal Scoliosis Obesity
Degenerative disc disease Tumors Anxiety
Pinched or compressed nerves Osteoporosis Smoking
Lack of physical activity Aging

The Center for Comprehensive Spine Care makes a special effort to identify the symptoms of thoracic back pain. This type of back pain occurs in the upper back and it may indicate a serious or even potentially life-threatening underlying condition. If you experience upper back pain and any of the following symptoms, seek medical attention immediately.

  • Fever
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Deformity of the spine
  • Nerve pain in the lower body
  • Numbness or tingling in the legs or lower body
  • Severe stiffness
  • Severe constant pain
  • Changes in bladder or bowel function

9 Natural Remedies for Back Pain Relief

1. Fish Oil (2,000 milligrams a day)

Omega-3 fatty acids make an essential contribution according to the Harvard T.H. Chan’s School of Public Health. Omega-3s cannot be produced in the body; they must be consumed. The richest sources are coldwater fish, walnuts, and flax seeds.

Every healthy diet should include a variety of foods with these essential fats to reap their health benefits. However, when you are experiencing back pain, taking a high-quality supplement of 2,000 milligrams a day may be advised. In a landmark study conducted by the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical center, fish oil was shown to be as effective and safer than NSAIDs in relieving back pain.

While omega 3s are well-tolerated in food, check with your doctor prior to taking a fish oil supplement if you have type 2 diabetes, take blood thinners, or have a bleeding disorder or a shellfish allergy.

2. Turmeric (1,000 milligrams a day)

Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric that fights inflammation and reduces pain, is one of the most effective natural compounds in the world. Researchers from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center’s Department of Experimental Therapeutics conducted a clinical trial that found that natural compounds including curcumin are more effective than aspirin or ibuprofen.

Curcumin’s health benefits extend beyond its anti-inflammatory properties. In fact, in a systematic review published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, researchers state curcumin is safe in doses up to 2500 milligrams a day and can be used to treat a wide range of conditions. Current clinical trials are focusing on curcumin’s ability to prevent cancer, fight cancer, and even make traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy more effective.

Incorporating turmeric into your diet is easy. The small orange root is now readily available in most grocery stores. Just look for it near the fresh ginger. But please note, when using fresh or powdered turmeric, to get its full benefit, it must be combined with black pepper. Piperine, an essential compound in black pepper, makes it easier for the body to absorb curcumin.

Turmeric is easy to incorporate into salad dressings, stews and soups, and rice dishes for daily enjoyment. When you feel you need an extra boost of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory powers, sip on a turmeric latte. This delightful warm drink can be made with ingredients in your pantry—just don’t forget to add the black pepper!

3. D-Phenylalanine (1,500 milligrams a day, for several weeks)

D-Phenylalanine, or DPA, is one of the essential amino acids that is recognized for its power to reduce low back pain according to University of Michigan’s, Michigan Medicine. They report DPA decreases pain and can inhibit chronic pain in some cases. There are currently 48 clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of phenylalanine on conditions like cystic fibrosis and PKU, as well as the levels needed for wellness.

To learn more about taking phenylalanine for back pain, check out this article.

4. L-Tryptophan (2-6 grams a day)

Tryptophan, most commonly associated with turkey “comas” on Thanksgiving, is another of the essential amino acids that can help when you are experiencing upper back pain, middle back pain, or lower back pain. Tryptophan plays a critical role in back pain relief by helping to repair muscle tissue that has been damaged. Additional tryptophan benefits include reducing anxiety and depression.

An important note about amino acid supplements: The balance of amino acids in your blood is a delicate one. Because certain amino acids hitch a ride on the same transporter for entry into the brain, increasing levels of one without increasing levels of the other can restrict access and adversely affect mind and mood. For this reason, it’s recommended to supplement with a complete essential amino acid blend formulated with an ideal ratio of aminos.

5. Collagen (2-5 grams a day)

A vital protein, and the most abundant in the human body, collagen is the substance that gives our skin, hair, ligaments, and tendons the fuel they need. If your joints creak or pop, you may not have enough collagen “greasing the wheel” between your joints. And that can increase the risk for joint deterioration that can cause arthritis and chronic back pain.

Collagen is recognized for improving skin health, hair health, IBS symptoms, cellulite, and muscle mass, and has even garnered a reputation as an effective treatment for joint disorders and osteoarthritis according to researchers from the University of Illinois’ College of Medicine. This study specifically points to the efficacy of collagen hydrolysate.

Think of collagen hydrolysate as gelatin. It is rich in amino acids, but it has been processed fairly extensively to make the proteins smaller and more easily absorbed. Seek a high-quality supplement from a reputable company to add to your diet. While generally considered safe, some mild side effects have been reported with collagen supplements, namely digestive upset and heartburn.

6. Acupuncture

A popular and time-tested holistic technique, acupuncture has been shown to improve chronic back pain. In a large-scale clinical trial, researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics evaluated the efficacy of acupuncture for back and neck pain, arthritis pain, chronic headaches, and shoulder pain. The researchers determined that acupuncture is effective for chronic pain and verified that acupuncture has more than a placebo effect.

7. Massage

Massage is known for relieving stress, anxiety, pain, and a variety of other health conditions. Professional athletes often turn to massage after a tough workout or game to help relieve sore or strained muscles. Massage therapists can target specific muscles, ligaments, tendons, and connective tissues that are causing back pain.

There are a number of massage modalities, with some dating back to ancient China. Depending on the root cause of the back pain, a licensed and experienced massage therapist might recommend a deep tissue, sports, soft tissue, or Shiatsu massage. Massage is believed to relieve low back pain by improving circulation, releasing tension, increasing endorphin levels, and improving range of motion. Understand that it may take multiple sessions to accomplish relief.

8. Capsaicin Cream

Made from the compound found in cayenne and other hot peppers that cause the burning sensation and taste, capsaicin promotes pain relief, particularly for back pain, according to a study published in the journal Molecules. Available both over-the-counter and by prescription, a topical capsaicin cream can provide immediate back pain relief.

It is important to purchase a high-quality product and apply it as directed on the packaging. In itself, capsaicin can create pain, but it can also relieve the discomfort and pain caused by soft tissue injuries, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and muscle pulls or strains. Researchers believe that the heat generated by the capsaicin works by activating pain receptors that cause the brain to release pain-fighting hormones.

9. DIY Pain Relief Rub

Beyond using heating pads to soothe muscle tension and back pain, you can whip up a quick DIY pain relief rub. For a quick DIY topical back pain reliever (that smells great too!) use the recipe below. This home remedy is perfect for relieving lower back pain after a hard workout or pulling weeds. When applied, it provides a cooling, yet invigorating effect because of the menthol in the peppermint oil.

DIY Pain Relief Rub

  • 5-7 drops peppermint essential oil
  • 5-7 drops lavender essential oil
  • 5-7 drops marjoram essential oil
  • 2 teaspoons freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/4 cup coconut oil or jojoba oil

Mix all ingredients together until well combined. Massage into sore muscles and joints daily, or as needed.

Natural remedies for back pain relief

6 Lifestyle Changes to Prevent Back Pain

1. Exercise Regularly

The more you move, the better. Regular exercise is important for keeping your strength, flexibility, balance, and cardiovascular health at their pinnacle. Low-impact exercise like walking, riding a bike, and swimming are good options when you have back pain.

In addition to weight management, regular exercise has been shown to help:

Aim for 180 minutes each week, or 30 minutes a day, of moderate, low-impact exercise to relieve back pain and discomfort. The other health benefits will help to prevent additional injury and improve cardiovascular function.

Natural remedies for back pain relief

2. Stay Hydrated

Drink at least 8 ounces of pure water for every 10 pounds of body weight to stay properly hydrated. When you are dehydrated, the natural lubrication in your spinal discs is depleted and can result in backaches and fatigue.

Kidney stones and urinary tract infections are more worrisome side effects of dehydration and can both cause back pain. According to the National Kidney Foundation, it is vital to drink enough water during workouts and periods of hot weather as prolonged or frequent dehydration can cause kidney damage.

3. Lift Heavy Items Properly

Avoiding back injury is the best way to prevent back pain. According to the Mayo Clinic, it is important to use proper lifting techniques to avoid back pain. The Mayo Clinic recommends:

  • Starting in a safe position
  • Maintaining the natural curve of your spine
  • Using your legs to lift the weight
  • Squatting instead of kneeling
  • Avoiding twisting

4. Practice Pilates

Joseph Pilates developed this practice of stretching and body conditioning while interned during World War I. The reformer, which is widely used in Pilates studios today, is modeled after the first equipment he developed in the internment camp using bunk beds, springs, and ropes.

Pilates is focused on increasing core strength and creating long fluid muscle groups. This practice can help prevent injuries to the back and provide back pain relief. If you do have back pain, medical research shows that a regular Pilates practice is a great way to strengthen your core to prevent low back pain. In the just-released results of a randomized controlled trial, 12 weeks of Pilates practice improved chronic back pain.

Most metropolitan areas have established Pilates studios where experienced instructors and reformers are available. If a studio is not available in your area, Pilates equipment, including reformers, are available for home use.

5. Tai Chi

This ancient martial art has been practiced for thousands of years. It is characterized by slow, precise, and controlled movements—a very different discipline than other martial arts that focus on explosive power. Tai chi epitomizes the mind-body connection, as every fiber of your being must be engaged for best practice.

According to Harvard Medical School, the health benefits of tai chi include aerobic conditioning, improved flexibility and balance, better muscle strength and muscle response, and a reduction in falls. Tai chi can be practiced by virtually anyone, in any health condition. It involves low-impact and slow-motion isolating muscle groups responsible for core strength, balance, and confidence.

6. Yoga

Millions of Americans practice a form of yoga. This practice combines deep relaxation, deep breathing, meditation, and strength-training postures that are mixed together in balance to create a discipline known for reducing pain and improving balance, flexibility, and strength.

According to Harvard Medical School, yoga’s proven health benefits include:

  • Reducing your risk of heart disease
  • Relieving migraines
  • Fighting osteoporosis
  • Alleviating the pain of fibromyalgia
  • Easing multiple sclerosis symptoms
  • Increasing blood vessel flexibility (69%!)
  • Shrinking arterial blockages

Regular yoga practice can help you prevent injury and back pain. And, if you have low back pain, a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the effectiveness of yoga and back pain showed that yoga is effective for both short-term and long-term relief of chronic low back pain.

Natural remedies for back pain relief

Precautions

As mentioned above, back pain accompanied by certain other symptoms can be a sign of serious underlying health conditions. If you experience back pain and any of the following symptoms, please consult with your physician immediately:

  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Dizziness
  • Numbness or tingling in any part of the body
  • Deformity of the spine
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Extreme stiffness
  • Severe constant pain
  • Changes in bladder or bowel function

Back pain symptoms tend to recur, with studies showing a recurrence rate of somewhere between 24% and 80%. To protect against future episodes of back pain, learn to lift heavy items properly and build your core strength to reduce your risk of injury.

At the End of the Day

Back pain is costly. It affects productivity at work, health care costs, and most importantly your quality of life. Whether acute or chronic, when you are in pain, the only thing you can focus on is effective back pain relief. Whether it strikes as lower back pain, middle back pain, or as neck and shoulder pain, pain is pain and finding the natural back pain remedy to ease your pain and speed up the healing process is essential.

Once the root cause of your back pain is determined, natural lower back pain remedies and upper back pain remedies are available. The key is finding the combination of treatments that work for you. Whether it is a high-quality amino acid supplement, a DIY essential oil rub, yoga, or Pilates, you can improve your quality of life and relieve your discomfort.

How to Get Rid of Jock Itch (Which Non-Jocks Get Too)

Jock itch, scientifically known as tinea cruris, is a fungus brought on by intense sweating. Find out how to prevent jock itch and get jock itch relief once you have it.

If you’re wondering how to get rid of jock itch, you might also be thinking: “I’m not a jock. Why do I have the itch?” It’s a question doctors hear more often than you might think. The second being, “How do I get jock itch relief?!”

Jock itch, scientifically known as tinea cruris, is most commonly caused by a fungus called Trichophyton rubrum, and it’s typically brought on by intense sweating. It also causes fungal infections of the toes and body.

While heavy perspiration is a condition often associated with athletes pushing limits during competition and practice, profuse sweating also can be a hallmark of certain health conditions. Diabetics experience heavy sweating at times, for example, and are prone to jock itch and its associated misery. Likewise, obese people have more skin folds, which is the ideal moist environment for skin conditions such as jock itch to occur. Individuals with compromised immune systems, such as cancer patients or those suffering from chronic illnesses, are also more susceptible to jock itch.

On hot and humid days, people with and without chronic health conditions may sweat profusely. If they are at a pool or the beach, they naturally may be wearing swimwear. But swimwear, by way of its constriction of the genitalia area, creates a breeding ground for jock itch during sweltering summer months. Tinea cruris loves moist environments.

Swimsuits should be washed in hot water and bleach after every use, especially if you think you may have jock itch. Families on summer vacations may want to reconsider the common practice of simply throwing wet swimwear over the HVAC in the hotel room for next use. The HVAC, in fact, will introduce even more bacteria into the damp garment.

What Does Jock Itch Look Like? Is It Contagious?

Jock itch is typically referred to as a men’s health problem, but women can get jock itch too. While the name denotes a feeling—an itch—tinea cruris is easy to spot for those afflicted.

Symptoms of jock itch include intense redness that resembles a sunburn and radiates outward from the inner thighs and crotch area. The red rash becomes elevated. The rash also can form on the buttocks. The intensity of the redness can be alarming to someone experiencing jock itch for the first time, particularly if the redness appears before the itch.

Like other tinea infections, tinea cruris can be spread easily. “Jock itch is often caused by the same fungus that results in athlete’s foot,” Mayo Clinic advises on its website. “It’s common for the infection to spread from the feet to the groin, as the fungus can travel on your hands or on a towel.”

What to Use for Jock Itch Relief

The most common types of over-the-counter medications used for jock itch are antifungal creams like Lotrimin, Monistat, or Micatin and antifungal powders like Lamisil keep the groin dry. Both destroy fungi by interfering with their cell processes. Some can be obtained over the counter, but others require a doctor’s prescription.

Multiple studies have shown that antifungal creams plus a corticosteroid yield the fastest results for jock itch relief—emphasis on relief. A paper published in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (U.K.) showed azoles and benzylamines (two types of antifungal creams) both treat jock itch, but that when combined with a topical corticosteroid, they achieved the cure faster.

Or did they?

“Combinations of antifungal treatment with a topical corticosteroid achieved higher cure rates, probably because the skin redness disappears sooner due to the effect of the corticosteroid. There was no evidence of any difference in the speed of resolution of fungal infection with these combination treatments.”

In cases of severe jock itch, your doctor may prescribe a prescription-strength oral antifungal, like Sporanox (itraconazole) and Diflucan (fluconazole). These come with side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, headache, and indigestion, and are not suitable for everyone. They can also cause serious liver problems.

There are a couple of home remedies for fungal skin infections that might be worth trying, but medical research proving their effectiveness is extremely limited. This is common, however, given the cost of medical research.

How to Treat Jock Itch Naturally

Treat jock itch with these popular home remedies.

  • Oil of bitter orange: While it’s just a small clinical trial of 20 people, the results offer hope for those with chronic jock itch. In the trial, half were cured of jock itch when treated with 20% oil of bitter orange in alcohol. The 1996 paper was published in the International Journal of Dermatology.
  • Tea tree oil: Tea tree oil is the only herbal medicine British researchers deemed semi-effective in treating fungal infections in a 2004 review archived in Database of Abstracts of Reviews and Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews, York.

How to Get Rid of Jock Itch for Good

Cleveland Clinic offers common-sense tips for preventing jock itch and similar skin disorders, but they’re only common-sense if you know that athlete’s foot and jock itch go hand in hand.

  • Treat athlete’s foot (tinea pedis). Jock itch and athlete’s foot constantly get transferred back and forth via your hands and the towels you dry off with. Make sure you treat them both.
  • If you have athlete’s foot, put on socks before underwear to prevent jock itch. Wash your hands after putting on those undergarments. Keeping the affected area covered and practicing good hygiene will prevent you from spreading athlete’s foot to the groin area, or spreading jock itch to the foot. The fungus can grow in both places.
  • Change your underwear twice a day if you sweat a lot. Fungi love to grow in moist areas such as the groin, so it’s imperative to keep the area dry! It’s worth the extra laundry.
  • Wash workout clothes and athletic supporters…immediately. Workout clothes are a favorite resting place for fungi, so in the washer they go.
  • Men, keep your private parts dry. Be diligent about preventing excess moisture, but don’t constrict the area. Consider wearing boxers instead of briefs while treating jock itch.
  • Never, ever share (or wear) previously worn, unlaundered clothes with (or from) anyone.
  • Be smart about groin health. Keeping the area dry and clean is the key.

Amino Acid Infusion: Is There an Advantage Over Oral Ingestion of Amino Acids?

Amino acids can be delivered either by intravenous infusion or oral ingestion. Both routes support protein metabolism in the body, as well as provide amino acids for other purposes. But what are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

The use of amino acid infusions to provide nutritional support to individuals incapable of eating a sufficient amount of dietary protein to meet nutritional requirements dates back to the 1960s. An amino acid infusion can either provide partial nutritional support or may be given as part of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). TPN provides all nutrition, including amino acids, carbohydrate, fat, and vitamin and minerals via intravenous infusion, or amino acid injections. But is there a significant advantage to taking amino acids intravenously over taking amino acids orally as a supplement?

Intravenous Amino Acids and TPN

Intravenous amino acids can provide nutritional therapy for protein metabolism (the breaking down and building up of proteins).

An amino acid infusion contains the amino acids with the greatest protein-stimulating effect. These include the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, phenylalanine, histidine, threonine, methionine, and tryptophan, as well as the nonessential amino acids alanine, arginine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. These amino acids act as protein-building blocks, encouraging protein synthesis in muscle cells and preventing protein breakdown.

An amino acid injection is the administration of amino acids and other nutrients by way of parenteral nutrition. Parenteral administration utilizes routes outside the gastrointestinal (GI tract), such as intravenous routes. Enteral nutrition, on the other hand, is food or drug administered by way of the GI tract, such as with tube feeding.

Intravenous infusion of amino acids is used for patients who cannot take in food or nutrients through the enteral route (GI Tract). For instance, if gastrointestinal absorption is disrupted by inflammatory disease or obstruction, or if tube feeding is not providing adequate nutritional support.

Aminosyn® II is a popular amino acid injection given by way of peripheral vein or central vein infusion and used as a source of nitrogen in the short-term nutritional therapy of patients with adequate body fat who are unable to sustain oral nutrition. This type of amino acid infusion is also administered to help prevent or reverse negative nitrogen balance in patients who cannot take in nutrients via the enteral route.

Individuals who have had large portions of their intestines removed surgically can live indefinitely on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A 15% amino acid injection can be administered by use of a central venous catheter or by peripheral vein. This amino acid infusion is coupled with vitamins, trace elements, electrolytes, and energy nutrients to provide the necessary nutritional support for weight maintenance or weight gain. In order for the amino acids from TPN to be adequately absorbed and utilized, energy requirements must be met. Energy is typically provided as a combination of dextrose to support carbohydrate metabolism and an intravenous fat emulsion that offers up essential fatty acids to protect against essential fatty acid deficiency and fulfill the dietary balance of fat and carbs.

TPN using amino acid injections can promote muscle protein synthesis, as well as meet other requirements for amino acids, including immune function and brain neurotransmitter synthesis.

The primary drawback to amino acid infusion as the sole source of amino acids from the physiological perspective is that the intestine atrophies. This is because some of the amino acid requirements of the gut are satisfied by direct uptake of amino acids from the digestion of orally ingested protein or amino acids. Atrophy makes the intestines more permeable to diffusion of bacteria and bacterial products from the gut into the body. Of course, if TPN is used because of the removal of the gut, this point is moot. If the intravenous infusion of amino acids is used alongside orally ingested protein, gut integrity will be maintained so long as the oral intake is sufficient.

Benefits of Amino Acid Infusion

The clinical benefits of amino acid infusion in patients who are incapable of ingesting adequate nutrition orally are well established. In addition, intravenous infusion of amino acids in individuals fully capable of ingesting amino acids orally is gaining popularity. The “selling point” of this therapy is that the exact concentrations of individual amino acids in the blood can be precisely controlled. This is promoted as particularly important to the relative concentrations of amino acid precursors of specific brain neurotransmitters. This approach is used in recovery from addiction, as well as for general support of protein metabolism in the body.

The premise of intravenous amino acid therapy is that the individual cannot get the full benefit from orally ingested amino acids, or that the intravenous infusion somehow confers special beneficial effects.

Advantages of Oral Ingestion of Amino Acids

The oral ingestion of amino acid solutions has advantages over amino acid infusion. There is no risk associated with oral ingestion, whereas intravenous infusion carries with it the risk of vein irritation. A health care provider is needed to perform the intravenous infusion, whereas free amino acids for oral consumption are relatively cheap and readily available.

It is possible to obtain a mixture of essential amino acids for oral consumption specifically designed for a particular condition, such as reaching your ideal body weight, whereas the options for intravenous infusion are much more limited due to the arduous procedure to obtain approval from the FDA.

There are also physiological advantages to the oral ingestion of amino acids over peripheral infusions. Most important of these is that the uptake and utilization of amino acid solutions by the intestines provides a direct source of essential nutrition.

Orally ingested amino acids are directly absorbed by the intestines and require no digestion. The amount of amino acids provided to the body by the two routes (oral and intravenous) are thus similar. Since orally ingested amino acids pass through the intestines, liver, and other organs before reaching the peripheral circulation, the peripheral plasma concentrations of amino acids reach higher levels when infused intravenously. Conversely, orally ingested amino acids provide more direct support of the internal organs.

Orally ingested and intravenously infused amino acids both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, which is the metabolic basis for muscle growth and strengthening. A clinical study of older individuals showed that muscle protein synthesis was stimulated in response to both intravenously infused as well as orally ingested amino acids. In addition, the profile of amino acid concentrations in the blood reflected the profile of the orally ingested amino acids, so there is no advantage to intravenous infusion in terms of supplying the proper balance of amino acids needed to synthesize neurotransmitters in the brain. Further, a clinical response was observed at dosage levels that are able to be consumed orally without much difficulty.

Side Effects of Amino Acid Injections

Amino acid infusions are now being marketed as a way to boost athletic endurance, protect against muscle loss, and even improve the health of the central nervous system. While amino acid solutions can indeed impart these benefits, amino acid injections were not originally developed for healthy individuals tackling body weight goals. Oral amino acid supplements, however, can help build muscle, sharpen cognitive function, and enhance athletic endurance, and there are no needles or doctors involved. It’s as easy as mixing an amino acid powder with water.

One of the biggest advantages of taking an oral amino acid supplement over an amino acid injection is that no special care is needed and there are no side effects to contend with.

Amino acid injections can cause the following adverse reactions:

  • Inflammation/redness at the injection site
  • Irritation
  • Nausea
  • Flushing
  • Fever
  • Allergic reactions
  • Weight gain
  • Jaundice
  • Urine changes
  • Weakness

Contraindications for amino acid injections are indicated for individuals in hepatic coma, with hepatic insufficiency, severely impaired kidney function or renal failure, or suffering from metabolic disorders due to compromised nitrogen utilization or hypersensitivity to one or more amino acids.

The Verdict

Amino acids can be delivered either by intravenous infusion or oral ingestion of amino acid solutions. Both routes support protein metabolism in the body, as well as provide amino acids for other purposes.

The intravenous infusion procedure has risks and costs that are avoided by oral ingestion, and the amino acid profiles in available intravenous infusion mixtures are limited. For these reasons, amino acid infusion should be used only in individuals who are incapable of ingesting amino acids or who have a limited capacity for absorption. Oral ingestion is the preferred route of delivery of amino acids in most circumstances.