Kidney Infections: The Symptoms and Solutions

Kidney infections: what are the symptoms, what causes them, who’s most at risk, and how can they be cured? These important kidney-related questions are answered here.

A kidney infection is a serious health condition that needs immediate medical treatment. This article details the signs and symptoms of kidney infection, the diagnostic process, and the treatment options so you can determine whether or not it’s time to seek medical care.

What Is a Kidney Infection?

The medical term for an infection in your kidneys is pyelonephritis. It can develop from urinary tract or bladder infections that spread to one or both of your kidneys, and it can be a life-threatening condition. If you experience the following symptoms, seek medical evaluation immediately.

The Symptoms of a Kidney Infection

This list includes possible kidney infection symptoms, and due to the seriousness of such infections, if you experience them you’re encouraged to seek health care as soon as possible.

  • Cloudy urine (or urine containing blood or pus)
  • Pain in your groin, lower back, side, or abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Frequent urination
  • Burning or painful urination
  • High fever
  • Chills

An untreated kidney infection can quickly lead to sepsis and possible death, so do not hesitate if you are experiencing these symptoms, or if you suspect them in a person you care for like a child or an elderly parent.

The Causes of Kidney Infection

Your kidneys reside in your upper abdomen. These two fist-sized organs filter waste out of your bloodstream and into your urine for elimination from the body. They also work to regulate your electrolytes and water retention and are vital to human survival.

Bacteria like Escherichia coli (E. coli) can enter the kidneys via the urethra and bladder, where the bacteria can multiply and spread. Bacteria can also arise from other sources in the body and be spread via the bloodstream, or can arise from something blocking the flow of urine (like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate).

The Risk Factors for Kidney Infection

Since we all have kidneys, we are all at risk of developing a kidney infection of some sort, but there are certain situations and conditions which make infection more likely.

  • Urinary catheter use: Because a catheter enters the urethra, it can introduce bacteria.
  • Compromised immune system: Taking immunosuppressant drugs, or having conditions like HIV/AIDS or diabetes, can increase the risk of kidney infection.
  • Urinary tract damage: Any damage that causes urine retention or backup can lead to kidney infection. Urine backing up into the kidneys is a condition known as vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Urinary tract infection: UTIs account for at least 1 in 30 kidney infection cases.
  • Being female: Due to the proximity between urethra and anus, plus the shorter urethra that characterizes female anatomy, women are statistically more likely to contract a kidney infection due to a UTI.
  • Being pregnant: Pregnant women are even more likely to have a kidney infection due to shifts that happen to the urinary tract during pregnancy.

If you have a UTI, seek medical intervention before it progresses to a severe infection. Likewise if you have unexplained lower back pain, abdominal pain (common kidney pain locations), or any other suspicious symptoms, consult a doctor as quickly as possible for treatment.

How Kidney Infections Are Diagnosed

A doctor may conduct a medical history survey to determine your health information and risk factors for kidney infection, and then order tests or conduct a physical exam of the genital area. Tests may include:

  • X-rays to assess for urinary system blockage
  • A rectal exam for men to evaluate the prostate gland
  • MRI, ultrasound, or CT scan of the kidneys
  • A urine culture to determine the type of bacteria involved
  • Urinalysis to check the urine for bacteria or white blood cell presence

Kidney Infection Treatment Options

Depending on the nature and severity of your kidney infection, treatment options may vary. Once your urine tests have been evaluated, a doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics, recommend you drink plenty of fluids to help clear out the infection, and issue other medical advice to help you avoid kidney problems in the future.

If you are given antibiotics, be sure to take them as directed and to completion to effectively eliminate the infection and avoid other serious complications like sepsis, chronic kidney disease, or kidney failure. Some instances may even call for surgical intervention and need prolonged medical attention.

Kidney Infection Recovery Tips

If you are sent home with a 2-week course of antibiotics, you can use a heating pad to help reduce your kidney pain or take over-the-counter pain killers like ibuprofen (avoid acetaminophen or Tylenol as it can cause more kidney harm). Be sure to drink at least 8 glasses of water and/or cranberry juice each day to help your body clear out the bacteria afflicting your organs.

Take Care of Yourself and Your Kidneys

Kidney infections, especially if they are caught early enough, can be managed and completely cured. Your kidneys are some of the hardest-working organs you’ve got detoxifying your body every day, so if you suspect they’re in danger or besieged by bacteria, seek medical assistance right away to get them back to functioning.

Kidney infections: symptoms and solutions.

Liver Flush: What Ingredients Actually Help Liver Function?

Will a liver flush or cleanse actually work? Find out what damages your liver, and which supplements and foods can actually help prevent liver disease.

Your liver is the undefeated detoxifier. Along with your kidneys, it’s the organ that detoxes you, and there’s only so much you can do to help detox it. That being said, while a liver flush is not as simple a concept as, say, clearing out your rain gutters with a high-powered spray of water, there are things you can do to support your liver’s natural detoxification processes, so it can flush itself and your entire body of any toxins swirling around in your bloodstream. This article details what substances can harm your liver and which liver aids have scientific reasoning behind them.

Liver Flush: Fad vs. Fact

Your liver is your largest internal organ. As big as an average football, the liver resides on the upper right side of your abdomen, above your stomach but beneath the divide separating your lungs from your guts: the diaphragm.

Many homemade liver cleanse concoctions involve fruit juice (organic apple juice, lemon juice, grapefruit juice), along with epsom salt and extra virgin olive oil. Some go so far as to suggest a coffee enema, but which one if any of these ingredients actually benefits your liver, and how? Let’s first dispel some misconceptions, and then read on for a list of foods and beverages that are proven to benefit your liver.

Is There Anything Useful in Liver Supplements?

Your liver is unique among your organs because it has the ability to heal and regenerate itself that other vital organs like the heart, lungs, and kidneys simply do not have. While you need to consume certain substances such as essential amino acids and antioxidant vitamins to support even your most basic functions, most of those nutrients can be found naturally in whole foods.

Many supplements on the market are sold without clinical testing or FDA approval, but there are certain ingredients that have been proven scientifically to help the liver do its job.

  • Milk thistleThe anti-inflammatory and antioxidant powers of milk thistle are known to have a positive effect on your liver’s health.
  • Turmeric: Another anti-inflammatory agent, turmeric can help not only reduce the risk of developing liver disease, but can also improve your entire body’s well-being by reducing pro-inflammatory molecules.

Can a Liver Flush Help with Weight Loss?

There really is no quick shortcut to losing weight. There are only two ways to shed body fat: one is burning more calories than you consume and the other is consuming fewer calories than you burn.

Because there are so many questionable claims surrounding liver cleanses on the market, studies have actually looked into and found that certain supposed liver-cleansing diets actually succeed in lowering your metabolic rate, therefore impeding weight loss rather than aiding it.

Instead of trying to find a shortcut to weight loss via your liver, focus on more tried-and-true methods of healthy weight loss (which in turn benefit your liver by cutting down on fatty deposits that may lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). You can do this by:

  • Reducing caloric intake. It’s recommended that women eat 1,600-2,400 calories per day, and men 2,000-3,000. Staying closer to the lower end of the appropriate range is ideal for both your waistline and your liver’s health.
  • Burning calories through exercise. To burn off the body fat you already have, especially dangerous abdominal fat that could be negatively impacting your vital organs, take up regular exercise. Even evening walks or gentle at-home morning yoga can help get harmful fat deposits off your body and away from your liver.
  • Upgrading your diet. The better foods you choose, the more you can eat. If you want to lose weight without feeling like you’re starving yourself, eat superior foods from each food group: whole vegetables and fruits, unrefined whole grains, lean proteins like fish, chicken, and eggs, and healthy fats like those in nuts and olive oil.

Will a Liver Detox Diet Help Prevent Liver Disease?

Liver disease can arise from many different conditions, the most well-known being hepatitis (from infection by the hepatitis A, B, or C virus), alcohol abuse (leading to inflammation of the liver, scarring, and ultimately cirrhosis), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which can come about through poor exercise and diet. The best way to prevent liver disease depends on the cause of it, and includes:

  • Safe sex and hygiene practices: Hepatitis can be contracted through unprotected sex, needle-sharing, or from mother to child during birth.
  • Alcohol moderation: The best way to prevent alcoholic fatty liver disease and other adverse health conditions (like kidney damage) is to drink alcohol in moderation or not at all.
  • Proper diet and exercise: To prevent the buildup of fat in your liver (not to mention your arteries), eating well and exercising regularly are key.

While the liver can recover and repair itself, once there is scarring of the liver tissue, that scarring cannot be reversed. Severe scarring of the liver is known as cirrhosis, and can ultimately lead to liver failure and death.

Avoiding fatty foods by choosing a liver detox diet can only prevent some of the risk factors for liver disease, not all, so be careful with your liver—unlike your kidneys, it’s the only one you’ve got.

If you have a family history of liver disease, consult a health care professional for medical advice on how to maintain optimal liver function.

What You Can Do to Protect Your Liver

There are foods and substances that can help cleanse or flush your system and aid liver health, but before we get to dietary solutions, here are other things you can do to maintain a healthy liver.

1. Vaccinate Against Hepatitis

Some forms of hepatitis are incurable, and preventing infection is the best way to make sure your liver does not have to suffer damage from the disease. Hepatitis viruses are not just sexually transmitted; they can be caught during travel to countries with unsanitary conditions, by healthcare workers who work in close proximity with infected patients, or from tattoo parlors with unsafe needle practices. The proper hepatitis vaccinations may save you from infection no matter how you’re exposed to these viruses.

2. Take Medications Cautiously and as Directed

No matter whether it’s a prescription or nonprescription drug, your liver must process the medication you take. If it’s possible to use natural remedies instead of pharmaceutical drugs, you may want to try those first.

If you need certain medications, take them as directed by your doctor (don’t stop a course of antibiotics for example when you start feeling better, as this can lead to drug-resistant viruses), and do not mix any medications with alcohol, including and especially over-the-counter medicine like Tylenol (acetaminophen), which should never be taken within 24 hours of imbibing alcohol, and vice versa.

3. Limit or Avoid Alcohol Intake

Liver damage from alcohol use is one of the most preventable conditions around. Alcohol is a poison, a toxin that your liver has to clean up. In fact, your liver has the lion’s share of the responsibility, as 90% of the alcohol you ingest is metabolized by your liver. The recommended limit is no more than 1 drink per day for women, and 2 drinks per day for men.

It’s not just liver disease you need to be concerned about with alcohol. When the liver metabolizes alcohol it converts it into acetaldehyde, which is a cancer-causing agent. While a glass of red wine with dinner is connected to heart health, excessive drinking and hard liquor consumption can cause inflammation, fatty buildup, and permanent scarring, which compromises your liver’s ability to detox your body, and no liver flush or cleanse can reverse that kind of damage.

4. Protect Yourself from Needles (and with Condoms)

If you need to use needles regularly for insulin injections or other medications, if you’re a healthcare worker who frequently handles needles, or if you are in the market for a tattoo, be proactive in making sure your needles are properly sterilized and never shared. Should you get stuck with a previously used needle, seek immediate medical attention, and do not take street drugs at all, especially if they involve injection.

Many viruses can be transmitted not just by blood, but via other bodily fluids as well. When engaging in intercourse, practice safe sex precautions like condom usage, dental dams, regular STD testing, and preventative medications like PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis).

5. Handle Chemicals with Caution

Household chemicals, paint, insecticides, fungicides, etc. are all toxins you can inhale or ingest, and it is up to your liver to process and eliminate those toxins. Protect yourself by wearing gloves, a mask, and protective skin coverings (like long-sleeved shirts and pants) to reduce the amount of toxic chemicals you’re exposed to in any given situation.

6. Reduce Unhealthy Food Consumption

Salt, sugar, and processed foods can all be detrimental to your liver’s health. For example, consuming excessive salt can lead to fluid retention, water weight gain, and extra stress on both your kidneys and your liver. If you don’t consume enough water along with the salt, your body may produce an antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) that prevents urination, and you’ll retain the water instead of using it to flush toxins from your system. In this situation, more water intake, decreased salt intake, or increased potassium could help, as potassium helps balance out the effects of sodium.

When it comes to sugar and processed foods, it’s a metabolic nightmare. Added sugars like refined sugar and corn syrup are permeating processed foods, from cookies and candies, to salad dressings, pasta sauces, and even granola bars. High sugar consumption not only can lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but can also contribute to other chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease.

Maintaining a healthy weight via diet and exercise can help prevent gallstone formation, which arises when you have too much cholesterol in your bile. Your gallbladder is attached to your liver courtesy of the common bile duct, and acts as a storage site for the necessary bile your liver produces. Bile that is thick with cholesterol can form stones that block your gallbladder or your liver (making them liver stones), and interrupt or damage the liver’s normal functioning.

Replacing junk foods with healthier alternatives, as well as eating more whole foods instead of processed ones, invariably leads to better health for you and your vital organs.

What ingredients work for a liver flush?

Healthy Foods for Liver Cleansing

So here we are: one of the best ways to help remove toxins from your bloodstream and your liver is to avoid consuming them in the first place. However, that begs the question, “What foods are good for a liver flush?” Here’s a list of foods and beverages that are particularly suited to promoting your liver’s health and helping it eliminate toxins.

1. Coffee

Good news: coffee is an excellent drink for liver health. It can protect against the development of liver disease, even for those who already have compromised liver function. For instance, multiple studies have shown that regularly consuming coffee lowers your risk for cirrhosis, even for those who already have chronic liver disease. Researchers urge those with liver disease to drink coffee, as many as 3 cups per day, because it may even lower the risk of death.

These amazing benefits are attributed in the above-linked studies to coffee’s ability to block collagen and fat buildup, two huge contributors to liver disease, and to aid in the production of glutathione, an antioxidant that helps guard against the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Coffee comes with many health benefits, including improved liver function.

2. Grapes

Darker grapes (purple and red) are famously well-known for containing resveratrol, the compound that makes red wine a heart-healthy beverage. Grapes and grape juices have been shown to benefit the liver in various animal studies, preventing damage from toxins and lowering unhealthy inflammation.

One human study conducted in 2010 found that supplementing with grape seed extract for 3 months improved the liver function of participants with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, leading to the supposition that consuming concentrated, unsweetened grape fruit juice could help those with even severe liver conditions feel better.

3. Grapefruit

Another fruit that can provide natural hepatoprotective (liver-protective) antioxidants is grapefruit, thanks to its concentrations of naringenin and naringin. These antioxidants have been shown to help guard against liver damage and help reduce dangerous inflammation. They can also discourage the development of hepatic fibrosis, a condition wherein connective tissue excessively builds up in the liver and causes chronic inflammation.

Naringenin specifically has been shown to increase fat-burning enzymes and prevent metabolic dysregulation, while naringin is known to improve alcohol metabolism and mitigate alcohol’s adverse side effects. So if you find grapefruit juice in a liver flush recipe, it has scientifically backed reasoning to be included, not to mention it’s a great source of vitamin C, another antioxidant that’s known to help prevent cold and flu infection.

4. Nuts

Full of the antioxidant vitamin E and high in healthy fats, nuts are great benefactors for heart health and possibly the liver as well. This observational study conducted in 2015 found that consuming walnuts helped improve liver enzyme levels of 106 participants with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. And an observational study from 2014 demonstrated that men who consumed nuts and seeds in large amounts had a lower risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the first place.

5. Tea

Tea (especially green, black, and oolong tea) has been shown to consistently improve the health and longevity of those who consume it regularly. Tea consumption has also been found to benefit the liver in particular, as can be seen in this study of Japanese men who drank 5-10 cups of green tea each day and had improved blood markers of both cardiovascular and hepatic health. In another study of 17 participants with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, drinking green tea for a 12-week period decreased fat deposits in their livers, reduced their oxidative stress levels, and improved their liver enzyme levels.

Green tea has also been found to help prevent the development of liver cancer, and black tea too has been observed reducing the negative liver effects of a high-fat diet while also improving liver health blood markers. If you have an active liver condition, consult your doctor before supplementing with green tea extract, but if you’re just looking to flush your liver of toxins, drinking green tea is a strong place to start.

6. Dark Berries

Deep-colored berries like blueberries and cranberries contain antioxidants known as anthocyanins. This compound gives berries their rich colors and is connected to improved liver health. For example, cranberries can help prevent toxic liver injury, and blueberries can help positively modulate T-cell activity in the immune response to your liver.

Blueberry extract has even managed to inhibit human liver cancer cell growth in laboratory studies, and may someday have practical anti-cancer application in humans.

7. Beetroot Juice

Beetroot juice contains betalains, nitrates that function as antioxidants for heart health. When it comes to the liver, beetroot juice also serves to increase your production of natural detoxification enzymes, improving your liver’s detox capacity. It also lowers inflammation levels in the liver and blocks oxidative stress damage.

8. Prickly Pear

The prickly pear, aka Opuntia ficus-indica, is an edible cactus that you may remember from the song “The Bare Necessities” in Disney’s The Jungle Book. A long-standing staple of traditional medicine, the prickly pear is used in modern medicine to treat wounds, ulcers, liver disease, and even hangovers.

That’s right: those who overindulge in alcohol and wake up the next morning with symptoms like dry mouth, nausea, and lack of appetite may lessen the severity of those ill effects according to this study from 2004. This is thanks to the detoxification-enhancing abilities and anti-inflammatory properties of the prickly pear. A more recent study from 2012 on rat models found that prickly pear helped protect the liver from the after-effects of alcohol consumption as well.

9. Fatty Fish

You might not think nonalcoholic fatty liver disease could be helped by eating more fat, but it’s the quality of fat that counts, as well as the omega-3 fatty acid content. Eating oily, fatty fish like salmon or halibut is well-known to be good for heart and cholesterol health, and consuming fish oil may help alleviate arthritis inflammation.

Fatty fish are good for your liver health as well, because they can help balance your ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (most people in the modern world get far too much omega-6 and nowhere near enough omega-3 fatty acids), which is important because an imbalance between the two may help promote liver disease development.

10. Olive Oil

Olive oil can not only replace unhealthy refined vegetable oils in your diet, but it can also improve your liver enzyme levels, as was seen in this 2010 study of 11 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients. As with fatty fish, olive oil is a healthy fat that can improve your metabolic rate, optimize insulin sensitivity, and even increase blood flow to your liver.

Liver, Laugh, Love

When it comes to optimal liver function, it’s half about what you add to your body, and half about what you abstain from adding. Avoid overtaxing your liver with poison like alcohol and drugs, but do be sure to make a habit of consuming detoxification aids like green tea, grapefruit juice, healthy whole foods, and the occasional nutrient supplement designed to provide the liver-protective nutrients you don’t naturally gain from food.

Fatty Liver Diet: How to Help Reverse Fatty Liver Disease

These 10 foods are central to the fatty liver diet, with science backing up what they can do to reverse fatty liver disease, decrease liver fat buildup, and protect your liver cells from damage.

Liver disease comes in two major types: alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. About a third of American adults are affected by fatty liver disease, and it’s one of the primary contributors to liver failure in the Western world. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is often associated with obesity and is frequently caused by highly processed food diets and a sedentary lifestyle. Treating fatty liver disease by eating a fatty liver diet can help reduce the amount of unhealthy fats in your food and restore your liver to its optimal functioning so that it can go on producing digestive bile and detoxing the body.

Top 10 fatty liver diet foods.

Top 10 Foods for the Fatty Liver Diet

A fatty liver diet includes high-fiber plant foods like whole grains and legumes, very low amounts of salt, sugar, trans fat, saturated fat, and refined carbs, absolutely no alcohol, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Eating a low-fat diet like this goes a long way in helping you lose weight, another factor in fatty liver disease. Reducing body fat and consuming less dietary fat help reverse fatty liver disease before it leads to dire health consequences, so consider these top 10 foods to be part of a fatty liver cure.

Top 10 fatty liver diet foods.

1. Green Vegetables

Eating green veggies like broccoli, spinach, kale, Brussel sprouts, etc. can help prevent fat buildup in your liver. Broccoli, for example, has been shown to prevent liver fat buildup in mice models, and eating a diet full of green leafy vegetables is well-known for helping to encourage weight loss and better overall health. Try this recipe for Tuscan Vegetable Soup from LiverSupport.com to find out just how tasty vegetables can be when you include them in your diet.

2. Fish

Fatty fish like trout, salmon, tuna, and sardines are not bad for you just because they’re fatty—healthy fats make a world of difference. Fatty fish contain high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which can actually improve your liver fat levels and reduce liver inflammation. Check out another low-fat recipe from LiverSupport.com for Cornmeal and Flax-Crusted Cod or Snapper to get an idea for fish dishes that could improve your health.

3. Walnuts

Walnuts are also a good source of healthy fat full of omega-3 fatty acids just like fish. Research confirms that including walnuts in one’s diet helps treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, improving liver function tests and bettering the health of patients.

4. Milk and Dairy

Low-fat dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt contain whey protein, which is not only a popular supplement for muscle growth among bodybuilders, but has also been shown to protect liver cells from damage sustained due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, according to this 2011 animal-based study.

5. Olive Oil

A staple of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil is full of omega-3 fatty acids and can be used in cooking to replace butter, shortening, or margarine for much healthier meals. Olive oil can help bring down your liver enzyme levels and body weight. Start cooking with olive oil with this recipe for a Healthy Mixed Vegetable Stir-Fry.

6. Green Tea

The science behind green tea is extraordinary, leading researchers to believe that it can literally help you live longer. Studies support the conclusion that green tea can help enhance liver function and decrease liver fat storage as well.

7. Coffee

Speaking of beverages, coffee can help lower high liver enzymes. The Mayo Clinic points out that studies have found coffee drinkers with fatty liver disease experience less liver damage than those who don’t drink any caffeine at all, and further studies show that the amount of abnormal liver enzymes in those at risk for liver disease can be reduced by caffeine intake. If you were ever looking for an excuse to drink more coffee, now you have a really good reason.

8. Tofu

Soy protein like the kind found in tofu has been found to reduce fat buildup in the liver. Not only that, tofu and other soy products provide a plant-based protein that can help other areas of your health when eaten regularly, including reducing the risk of heart disease.

9. Oatmeal

Whole grains like oatmeal help lower blood sugar spikes and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and also contribute to weight-loss efforts and improve your liver health and function. Including oatmeal as part of a healthy diet can aid your digestive health as well. Check out these various oatmeal recipes from Yumma at FeelGoodFoodie.

10. Sunflower Seeds

Sunflower seeds are full of vitamin E, an antioxidant that can help fight off free radical damage in the body and protect the liver. This 2016 review of studies details vitamin E’s ability to protect the liver and avoid the development of liver cancer. A regular habit of snacking on sunflower seeds may just help save your life.

Fatty Liver Foods to Avoid

Now that you have some idea of what you should eat to combat fatty liver disease, let’s quickly review the foods that should be avoided.

  • Alcohol: It may seem obvious, but if your liver is at all compromised, alcohol is too dangerous to consume.
  • Fried foods: High in calories and trans fats, commercially fried foods should be avoided (if you love fried foods too much to say goodbye, try an air fryer instead as a healthy alternative).
  • Salt: Bad for your blood pressure and for water retention, try to keep salt intake under 1,500 milligrams each day.
  • Added sugars: Added and refined sugars in prepackaged products like cookies, candies, sodas, and fruit juices spike your blood pressure and contribute to fatty liver buildup.
  • White bread, pasta, and rice: White instead of brown or whole grain carbs are highly processed and stripped of their valuable nutrients, so they can raise your blood sugar without even contributing healthy fiber—hard pass.
  • Red meat: While fish and lean meat like poultry can help you gain muscle and lose excess fat (which leads to a healthier weight), red meat should be avoided.

Other Ways to Fight Fatty Liver Disease

In the hopes of avoiding chronic liver disease or even a liver transplant, first seek medical advice from a trusted health care professional to get blood tests done and evaluate your specific circumstances. Then, outside of perfecting your diet, these other avenues can help:

  • Lower your cholesterol levels. An improved diet will go a long way toward lowering your cholesterol and triglyceride levels, but so can medications or (if you prefer) natural remedies for optimizing your cholesterol ratios.
  • Get regular exercise. Just 30 minutes of aerobic exercise per day makes a massive difference in your health and your energy levels.
  • Prevent/manage type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes often go hand-in-hand. If you’re prediabetic, making the above lifestyle changes could help you avoid the chronic condition that is diabetes. If you already have diabetes, staying on top of managing the disease can help you avoid a number of other painful health conditions and adverse results.

Livers for Life

Incorporating the 10 foods listed above into your diet and replacing unhealthy foods with better alternatives can help you lose weight and better the health of your liver before it’s too late.

Should You Supplement with the Amino Acid GABA?

Discover the science behind GABA supplements, what this neurotransmitter does, and whether or not it’s effective in treating stress, insomnia, high blood pressure, and anxiety disorders. 

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter in our brains. Low GABA levels are known to be associated with movement and anxiety disorders, so some people will take GABA supplements to help improve the function of their minds and central nervous systems. Read on to find out how GABA works, and whether or not it may be appropriate for you.

What Is GABA? How Does GABA Work? Where Can You Find It?

GABA is classified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter due to its ability to block certain signals in the brain. GABA decreases activity in the central nervous system and binds with proteins in the brain known as GABA receptors, which creates a calming effect that helps ameliorate feelings of fear, stress, and anxiety. GABA may also help prevent seizures.

Because of these abilities, GABA has become a popular dietary supplement.

For those who want to know how to increase GABA naturally, GABA is found in oolong, black, and green tea, and fermented foods like yogurt, kimchi, kefir, and tempeh. GABA production can be boosted by other foods, including nuts like almonds and walnuts, seafood like halibut and shrimp, whole grains, soy, beans, sunflower seeds, spinach, broccoli, fava, tomatoes, citrus fruits, berries, and cocoa.

Who Should Take GABA Supplements?

The reason people take GABA supplements is to get better access to its calming influence on the brain. GABA supplements are thought to relieve stress, and in so doing improve your overall health, because excess stress can lead to a weakened immune system, poor sleep quality, and a higher risk for anxiety and depression. There are also some health conditions that are associated with lower levels of GABA, so if you have any of the following health concerns, then GABA supplementation may be good for you.

People may need more GABA if they have:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Depression
  • Hypertension
  • Insomnia
  • Panic disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Movement disorders (including Parkinson’s disease)
  • Seizure disorders

Consult a qualified health care professional if you’re on any other medications for these conditions, and ask your doctor if GABA supplements could help manage some of the symptoms associated with these disorders. If you’re considering taking a GABA supplement, read on to find out how upping your intake of GABA affects your brain cells and may help improve your quality of life.

The science behind GABA supplements.

Are GABA Supplements Effective?

Even when supplementing with GABA, research suggests that only small amounts actually make it past the blood-brain barrier and reach your nerve cells. However, when it comes to some of the following uses of GABA, every little bit can count. Here is what the scientific research has to say about the effect of GABA on the human body.

GABA for Anxiety and Depression

This 2003 review on GABA usage for anxiety asserts that GABA is known to counterbalance the affect of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and plays a role in multiple neurobiological interactions that are relevant to those with anxiety disorders. It supports the use of GABAergic agents in treating anxiety, as does this 2012 article on the GABA system in anxiety and depression cases, which also points out that certain GABAA receptor modulators and GABAB antagonists could serve as potential antidepressants.

GABA for Insomnia

One small study from 2018 tested GABA on participants with insomnia and found that 300 milligrams of GABA taken an hour before going to sleep resulted in reports of people falling asleep faster and noting improved sleep quality in the first 4 weeks after starting GABA treatment. Though there were only 40 participants, these results suggest that effects of GABA supplements in humans may beneficially impact sleep habits.

GABA for High Blood Pressure

There are many studies that have evaluated GABA-containing products and their effectiveness at lowering blood pressure. A 2003 study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that consuming fermented milk with GABA helped significantly lower blood pressure levels in participants with elevated blood pressure in 2-4 weeks (compared to the placebo group). And a 2009 study revealed that consuming a GABA-containing chlorella supplement 2 times a day lowered the blood pressure of subjects with borderline hypertension.

GABA for Stress and Fatigue

In 2011 Japanese researchers found that consuming a beverage with either 25 or 50 milligrams of GABA resulted in reduced measurements of physical and mental fatigue during problem-solving tasks, with the higher dose being slightly more effective.

A 2009 study published in the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition showed that consuming chocolate containing 28 milligrams of GABA also reduced stress in participants as they performed a problem-solving test. Yet again in 2012, capsules with 100 milligrams of GABA led to reduced stress during the performance of a mental task. While these are small studies, they nevertheless appear to consistently show that GABA helps reduce stress and fatigue in human beings.

The Potential Side Effects of GABA Supplements

Though the side effects of GABA have not been specifically studied, there have been some reported side effects from people taking GABA supplements, including:

  • Headache
  • Muscle weakness
  • Sleepiness
  • Upset stomach

Since GABA appears to be useful in treating insomnia, it can cause feelings of sleepiness and shouldn’t be taken before driving or operating heavy machinery until you’re aware of how it affects you in whatever dosage you’re consuming it at.

There is also very little research done on GABA’s interaction potential with other supplements or medications, so it’s recommended that you seek medical advice if you’re currently taking any medication, particularly for insomnia, anxiety, or depression, and make sure that your doctor is aware of this or any other herb, supplement, or over-the-counter drug you’re consuming.

Go Gaga for GABA

GABA is a natural part of our body’s function, and plays an important role as a chemical messenger in our brains. Though the research on GABA as a supplement is somewhat skimpy, there are scientifically founded indications that it may help reduce anxiety, stress, high blood pressure, and insomnia.

It’s not just “supplements or bust” with GABA however, as practicing yoga can also lead to an increase of GABA levels, up to 27%! With a little yoga, some fermented foods, and the right GABA supplement, you could have all the bases covered when it comes to reducing the symptoms of certain dangerous medical conditions, and getting your brain in the right frame of mind.

D-Mannose: UTI Prevention and Treatment

D-mannose: what is it, how is it useful in preventing and treating UTIs, and where can you find it? All these questions and more answered, along with dosage recommendations based on successful clinical trials. 

If you suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), then you are already well aware that unsweetened cranberry juice is on the top of the home remedy list. You may not know that one of the aspects of cranberry juice that makes it so helpful is a compound known as D-mannose, a type of sugar related to the better-known substance glucose. This simple sugar is found naturally in the body and in a variety of foods, and recent clinical trials are discovering that D-mannose UTI treatment is a promising possibility. Read on to learn more about D-mannose, its other dietary sources, and how it may help those dealing with recurrent UTIs.

D-mannose for UTI treatment and prevention.

Symptoms and Risk Factors of UTI

Urinary tract infections do not always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do those symptoms could include:

  • A persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation during urination
  • Passing small, frequent amounts of urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Pink-, red-, or cola-colored urine (a sign of blood in the urine)
  • Unusually strong-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain, especially in women, in the center of the pelvis and around the pubic bone

Women are more at risk of developing UTIs because the urethra is shorter in female anatomy, which thus shortens the distance bacteria has to travel to reach the bladder. Sexual activity increases this risk, as well as certain types of birth control like diaphragms and spermicidal agents. Menopause can leave women more vulnerable to UTIs as well, and conditions like diabetes, or requiring the use of a catheter.

What Is D-Mannose for UTI?

D-mannose is a simple sugar, meaning it consists of only one molecule of sugar. While it naturally occurs in your body, D-mannose can also be found in some plants in the form of starch. Fruits and vegetables that contain D-mannose include:

  • Apples
  • Broccoli
  • Cranberries (and cranberry juice)
  • Green beans
  • Oranges
  • Peaches

D-mannose is also included in certain dietary supplements, and is available as a powder or in capsule form. Some supplements are made exclusively of D-mannose, while others may include additional ingredients like cranberry, hibiscus, dandelion extract, rose hips, or probiotics. D-mannose is often taken to treat or prevent urinary tract infections because it is able to stop specific bacteria from growing inside the urinary tract. The question is: does the use of D-mannose effectively treat UTIs?

The Science Behind D-Mannose UTI Treatment

There is scientific evidence detailing how D-mannose works to combat the bacterium that causes infections in the urinary system. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes an estimated 90% of UTIs. When E. coli gets into the urinary tract, it latches onto the cells and starts to grow, causing an infection. Researchers believe that D-mannose, whether consumed in foods or ingested via D-mannose supplements, can work to prevent UTIs by stopping the E. coli bacteria from attaching to the cell walls in the first place.

When D-mannose is consumed, it travels through the same digestive pathways as all the other foods you eat, eventually finding its way to your kidneys and urinary tract for elimination from the body. Once arrived, if there are any E. coli bacteria present, D-mannose combines with them before they can attach to your cells, and carries them out of your body during urination.

While there hasn’t been an overwhelming amount of research done on those with chronic or acute urinary tract infections, a few pilot studies show promising support of D-mannose’s potential in preventing and clearing up UTIs.

  • One 2013 clinical trial evaluated the effect of D-mannose supplementation on 308 women who had a history of recurrent UTIs. Over a 6-month period, D-mannose worked about as well as the antibiotic treatment nitrofurantoin, without the potential adverse effect of developing antibiotic resistance.
  • A 2014 study of 60 adult women found that D-mannose, when compared to the antibiotic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, appeared to be a safe and effective treatment and prevention tool. Not only did D-mannose reduce UTI symptoms in those women with active infections, but it was also more effective than the antibiotic in preventing recurring infections.
  • Another study in 2016 tested D-mannose’s effects on 43 women with active UTIs, observing that by the end of the study, most of the women had improved symptoms.

Where to Buy D-Mannose for a UTI and How to Use It

There are many D-mannose products that are widely available at pharmacies, health food and wellness stores, or for purchase online. When choosing a D-mannose product, keep in mind these three questions:

  • Are you seeking to prevent infection or to treat an active UTI?
  • What is the dose you’ll have to take?
  • What is the type of product you want to consume? (Powder or capsule? D-mannose alone or in a combined supplement?)

D-mannose is most often used for preventing UTIs in people who have them frequently, or for treating the symptoms of active urinary tract infections. How much D-mannose to take for a UTI depends on whether you’re treating or preventing, and based on the dosages used in the above-mentioned clinical research, suggested dosages are:

  • For preventing frequent UTIs: 2 grams of D-mannose once per day, or 1 gram twice per day.
  • For treating active UTIs: 1.5 grams of D-mannose twice per day for 3 days, then once per day for the following 10 days; or 1 gram 3 times per day for 14 days.

As far as the difference between capsules and powders, that is solely up to your personal preference. You may prefer a powder if you don’t like to swallow large capsules, if you want to avoid the fillers that are often included in manufacturers’ products, or if you have dietary restrictions on gelatin capsules. Many products provide you with 500-milligram capsules, meaning you may need to take 2-4 capsules to get the dose you’re looking for. Powder on the other hand would allow you to do your own measuring. D-mannose powder can be dissolved in a glass of water for drinking, or combined into smoothies. The powder easily dissolves, and in plain water D-mannose has a sweet taste.

Possible Side Effects of Taking D-Mannose

Most people taking D-mannose do not experience any side effects, but some have reported loose stools or diarrhea. Those with diabetes should consult a health care professional for medical advice before taking D-mannose, as it is a form of sugar and may need to be carefully monitored in relation to blood sugar levels.

Those with an active UTI should also consult a trusted health care provider, because the ability of D-mannose to treat an active infection for some may not be a sure-fire solution for all. Delaying antibiotic treatment of an active infection could allow enough time for the infection to spread to the kidneys and the blood, resulting in a much more serious medical condition.

D-Mannose Gets an “A” for Effort

While more research needs to be done on D-mannose’s potential for treating UTIs, it’s nevertheless a safe option to try for those who want to prevent UTIs and bladder infections from occurring in the first place. Talk with your doctor about whether this supplement might be the key to arming your immune system against invading urinary tract bacteria.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Home Remedies: 12 Natural Remedies for Pain Relief

Here are the top 12 rheumatoid arthritis home remedies that have scientific backing, proven safety, and can help ease the pain and stiffness of RA either independently or in coordination with your rheumatologist’s treatment plan.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disorder of the immune system characterized by excessive inflammation and pain in the body’s joints. While doctors may prescribe medication to help manage the condition and relieve arthritis pain, some RA symptoms will persist. If you’re looking for rheumatoid arthritis home remedies you can employ yourself—whether they be exercises, supplements, or care devices—this article has a variety of proven therapies that may help relieve your pain.

The Top 12 Rheumatoid Arthritis Home Remedies

While these at-home remedies may not be cures, and most certainly cannot replace your doctor’s advice and guidance, they are nevertheless some natural remedies for rheumatoid arthritis you can try on your own to relieve RA’s side effects of stiffness, pain, and discomfort. Some will be simple, like using heating pads and ice packs, while some will involve assistance from others, like acupuncture. If you have any questions about whether these home remedies are appropriate for your circumstances, ask your doctor before trying them, and once you get the go-ahead, find the treatment that works best for you.

The top 12 rheumatoid arthritis home remedies.

1. Heat and Cold Applications

Heat and cold treatments can both help ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, though each one offers unique benefits.

  • Cold compress: Applying an ice pack or other form of cold compress to the affected joint during an RA flare-up can help curb inflammation and joint swelling. It’s recommended that you apply cold for about 15 minutes at a time, taking a 30-minute break in between applications.
  • Heating pad: Heat relaxes your muscles and encourages blood flow to the affected area. By using either a warm, damp towel or a moist heating pad you can avoid any burns that might come from applying heat directly to the skin. A hot shower or warm bath can also act as heat therapy, but it’s recommended that you avoid hot tubs or spas in instances of heart disease, high blood pressure, or pregnancy.

2. Magnet Therapy

Magnet therapies can be found in a variety of forms, from bracelets (designed as home remedies for rheumatoid arthritis in hands) to necklaces, inserts, pads, and disks. They’re often available for purchase at natural food stores. While a lot of the data on the effectiveness of magnetic therapy is inconclusive and difficult to test for objectivity, it’s nevertheless a therapy you could evaluate on your own to see if it works for you.

3. Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that is one of the oldest natural pain therapies on record. In acupuncture, super-fine needles are used to stimulate your body along energy pathways known as meridians, with the goal to balance your energy or qi (pronounced “chee”). Acupuncture has been shown to be a beneficial rheumatoid arthritis treatment, and has also been found to help alleviate other chronic pain conditions like back pain and osteoarthritis. If you’re considering this course of treatment, ask your rheumatologist to recommend a trusted practitioner who has worked with RA patients before.

4. Aromatherapy

While this treatment won’t influence your pain levels or causes of inflammation, it may still improve your mood and your stress levels. Your sense of smell is linked deeply with your mood and memory, and some people have found that essential oil therapy and massage improve their feelings of well-being.

5. Biofeedback Training

Biofeedback training involves placing sensors over the patient’s body to monitor the physiological data regarding automatic responses, like your blood pressure and heart rate. This monitoring is done so that a therapist can help train the patient to acquire voluntary control over these functions, and has shown positive application in rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

Biofeedback treatment may include use of one or more of these measuring devices:

  • A galvanic skin response meter: For measuring eccrine sweat gland activity.
  • A thermistor: Used to measure peripheral skin temperature.
  • Electrocardiograms or photoplethysmographs: Meant to measure peripheral heart rate, blood flow, and heart rate variability.
  • Electromyogram (SEMG): For measuring surface neuromuscular responses.
  • A respiratory gauge: Used in measuring breathing patterns, breathing rate, and expired carbon dioxide.
  • Electroencephalography (EEG): Used to measure the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex.

Biofeedback is considered a self-regulatory therapy because it is a tool to increase your awareness of your individual physiological responses in order to change them, reducing symptoms or improving performance as needed in reaction to stressors.

6. Deep Breathing and Yoga

Deep breathing techniques involve taking slow breaths from the depths of your belly, and can help calm your body, relax your muscles, and turn off certain stress receptors. Deep breathing is often a focal point in the practice of yoga, a low-impact exercise method with spiritual roots that was developed in India over 5,000 years ago. Yoga can help ease joint pain, increase flexibility, and release tension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. If you’re seeking a yoga instructor, try to find someone with experience in guiding people with RA.

7. Exercise

Other types of exercise can help relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and increase your joint health. Your doctor may be able to recommend a physical therapist to get your body into a fit enough condition to take on some of the following exercises if you think they might help improve your quality of life. Your physical therapist may recommend:

  • Aerobics: Activities like walking, running, and swimming increase your cardiovascular capabilities and health.
  • Strength trainingStrength training helps to keep the muscles surrounding your joints strong.
  • Range-of-motion exercises: These exercises help to train your joints to move as they should.
  • Balance movesBalance training helps you avoid dangerous stumbles and falls (see the next entry on tai chi for more information).

8. Tai Chi

Tai chi is another ancient Chinese tradition that can serve to increase your balance and strength. Tai chi involves performing slow, deliberate movements in a focused manner, and, like yoga, also includes deep breathing techniques and holding various physical postures. Tai chi is a gentle martial art that teaches you to use your own bodyweight and connection to the earth to increase your strength, and has been shown to help with lower extremity mobility in RA patients, so it’s particularly good to include in home remedies for rheumatoid arthritis in knees or ankles.

9. Massage

Massage is another incredibly old and reliable natural remedy, and modern science still acknowledges that it can help ease pain, especially for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Massage and reflexology have been shown to help manage RA pain and fatigue in patients, and you should be able to get recommendations on a qualified masseuse from your doctor or your physical therapist.

10. Fish Oil Supplements

Studies have shown that fish oil supplements may help reduce pain and joint stiffness caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Be sure to consult with your doctor before adding fish oil supplements to your regimen because they could interfere with certain medications and increase the likelihood of bleeding or bruising. The only other side effects some people report are belching, nausea, or a fishy taste in their mouth. If you do choose to try fish oil supplements, know that they contain valuable omega-3 fatty acids that will also improve your body’s fatty acids ratio.

11. Topical Gels, Creams, and Patches

At-home remedies like rubs, heat patches, and warming creams can help alleviate your pain without the need for pharmaceuticals. Many of these products contain capsaicin, the ingredient that makes your chili peppers hot and that studies show can help ease RA pain. However, it’s not recommended to use these products along with an electric heating pad, as doing so could make burns more likely to occur.

12. Turmeric

Turmeric and its derivative curcumin are natural anti-inflammatory compounds. Turmeric is a golden spice often found in Indian and Indonesian cuisine, as well as in many supplements aiming to reduce inflammation and ease pain without use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This traditional medicine has been shown to block proteins that cause inflammation and is commonly used to treat RA.

A quick warning: while some supplements and natural remedies can truly help your condition, a lot of supplemental research is still in the early stages. These natural aids may affect other medications. Check with your doctor before taking even perfectly natural supplements to be sure they are safe for you.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Home Treatments

If you’re looking for RA or arthritis home remedies, there are many safe and effective options to choose from. If you have concern, doubt, or hesitation about these or other natural remedies, contact your rheumatologist, as any expert in the field will have a comprehensive awareness of these practices and supplements. Once you’re cleared to explore at-home options, you may well find the pain-free solution you’re looking for!

Natural Treatment of Osteoporosis: How to Naturally Boost Bone Density

What is osteoporosis, what causes it, and what are the traditional and natural treatments to help combat associated bone loss? This article provides a comprehensive look at osteoporosis and its treatment options. 

Osteoporosis has a silent onset, as it’s a disease that develops over many years, often going unnoticed because there are not obvious symptoms or discomforts—you cannot “feel” the weakening of your bones until they are so vulnerable you experience a bone fracture. The International Osteoporosis Foundation says that in the U.S. alone, 44 million men and women over the age of 50 are affected by low bone mass and osteoporosis. That is a startling 55% of all individuals age 50 and older living in the U.S., making the problems associated with low bone mass a major public health concern. Many people who face osteoporosis treatment are searching for the best and safest therapeutic, and the natural treatment of osteoporosis can be highly effective.

Natural osteoporosis treatments include addressing certain hormonal imbalances, getting enough exercise (especially via resistance training), preventing a vitamin D deficiency, and eating what’s considered an “osteoporosis diet.” The osteoporosis diet supports bone health by providing you with enough vitamins, minerals, and protein, especially minerals like calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, all of which play a key role in bone formation. For details on the nature of osteoporosis and the natural remedies you can embrace to regain bone strength, read on.

What Is Osteoporosis?

According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, the definition of osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. Osteoporosis translates to “porous bones.”

This disease is generally found in women over the age of 50, although it can develop in younger women and men as well. About one in two women and up to one in four men over the age of 50 will suffer a broken bone due to osteoporosis at some point—that’s 25% of men and a concerning 50% of women.

When observed microscopically, osteoporotic bones reveal abnormal tissue structure. The disease occurs when small holes or weak spots are formed in the bones, which can then lead to bone fractures, bone pain, and other side effects and complications such as what’s called a Dowager’s hump, an abnormally outward spinal curvature in the upper back or thoracic vertebrae that appears as a humpback.

Osteoporosis vs. Osteopenia

Osteoporosis is distinct from osteopenia, a condition that is also associated with bone loss and bone weakness but is less severe than osteoporosis. According to the Harvard Medical School, both conditions involve various degrees of bone loss as measured by a bone density test, a marker for the level of risk there is that a bone might break.

Thinking of bone mineral density as a slope, a healthy skeleton would be at the top of the slope, and advanced cases of osteoporosis would be at the bottom. Osteopenia affects about half of all Americans over 50, and it falls somewhere in the middle of the bone density slope.

The natural treatment of osteoporosis.

The Signs and Symptoms of Osteoporosis

The loss of healthy bone density is an incredibly serious condition that should not be taken lightly. Broken bones, especially in older adults, can be difficult to recover from completely, and may lead to a decrease in overall life enjoyment or worse (like chronic pain, long-term hospitalization, or even premature death). Broken bones and the surgeries needed to fix them can sometimes lead to life-threatening complications, permanent disability, limited mobility, and, of course, the emotional toll that such circumstances take, which could lead to feelings of hopelessness and depression.

Recognizing the symptoms of osteoporosis before a serious injury occurs could save your life. The most common symptoms include:

  • Osteoporotic bone fractures: Breaks and fractures most commonly occur in the hip, spine, or wrist bones, but may also affect the knees, feet, and various other parts of the body.
  • Limited mobility: Increased difficulty getting around or completing everyday tasks could be a sign of weakening bones, and many elderly adults who do break a bone require long-term in-home nursing care or need to take up residency in an assisted living facility.
  • Bone pain: Intense or persistent bone pain is another clear sign of bone weakening.
  • Loss of height: Becoming shorter as you age is not so much a natural occurrence as it is a sign of loss of bone strength and density.
  • A hunched or stooped posture: Remember the Dowager’s hump associated with osteoporosis? An abnormal curve of the spine is more than a slouch, it could be a sign of weakening bones.

Feelings of isolation and depression are also symptoms that stem from this loss of vitality. About 20% of seniors who break a hip die within a year of the fracture, making osteoporosis a contributing factor for increased risk of death.

Osteoporosis: Causes and Risk Factors

Not everyone over the age of 50 develops osteoporosis, so what are the risk factors that make the difference? Low bone mass and the risk of osteoporosis are often caused by a combination of different factors, including age, surrounding health conditions, and nutrient deficiencies due to eating an insufficient diet. The most common causes of osteoporosis include the following.

  • Inactivity: Too little exercise can contribute to a loss of muscle and bone mass, while regular exercise helps to strengthen the skeletomuscular system.
  • Aging: The fact of the matter is aging leads to progressive decline in all our body’s faculties, including bone health.
  • Hormonal changes or imbalances: Particularly low estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, one of the main symptoms of menopause, can lead to a decrease in bone mass. The same can occur in men with low testosterone levels, though due to the changes inherent in menopause, women remain more at risk.
  • A history of certain medical conditions: Autoimmune disorders, kidney or liver disease, and pulmonary disease can put you at an increased risk for osteoporosis.
  • A vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is needed for bone health and maintenance, and low levels of it can lead to skeletal weakness.
  • Other nutritional deficiencies: A lack of calcium or vitamin K can lead to osteoporosis, as they are two other key building blocks for your bones.
  • Stress: High amounts of stress or depression can alter your body’s chemistry and health and contribute to conditions like osteoporosis.
  • Weight loss: Whether intentional or unexplained, significant weight loss that involves severe calorie restriction or malnutrition can lead to weakening bones.
  • Long-term medication use: Certain serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fertility drugs or hormonal medications, aromatase inhibitors, anti-seizure medications, steroids (glucocorticoids or corticosteroids), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can contribute to the development of osteoporosis.

On top of the previously listed symptoms, being a woman and/or being over 70 are two more significant risk factors, as are a number of other health problems that can deplete the body’s supply of minerals and lead to low bone density over time. Those conditions include but aren’t necessarily limited to:

Osteoporosis Diagnosis

Doctors typically use a bone mineral density (BMD) test to confirm osteoporosis. The BMD test involves a specifically designed machine like a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (a DEXA scan), which measures the amount of bone mineral present in certain areas of your skeleton, usually the high-risk areas like your wrists, fingers, and forearms, your spine, your hips, and your heels.

Diagnosis is also confirmed by performing a physical exam, evaluating a patient’s medical history, administering blood and urine tests to discern whether there are underlying causes or contributing conditions, taking biochemical marker tests, and conducting vertebral fracture assessments (VFAs)—decreases in height are often due to loss of bone mass causing tiny fractures in the spine.

While osteoporosis is not life-threatening in and of itself, the prognosis can be worrisome for those who are diagnosed, because the longer the disease progresses, the more at risk they are of dangerous bone breaks. It’s possible to live many healthy years if you’re able to slow the progression of osteoporosis with weight-bearing exercises each day, for example, which can help build up bone mass.

While a case of low bone density can be stabilized or even improved in a matter of 6-12 weeks, once full osteoporosis is diagnosed, the patient’s bone mass usually does not return to normal. Once you have a diagnosis, the goal is to protect the strength you have and to rebuild density as much as possible to prevent your bones from becoming weaker and more at risk of fracture.

Conventional Osteoporosis Treatment

Conventional approaches to treat osteoporosis often involve prescribed medications, exercise recommendations, and dietary changes. There are many medications used to treat aspects of the condition and to help stop progressive bone loss, but not all of these medications are advisable for every patient. Factors include considerations like gender, age, medical history (like if you’re a cancer survivor or have a chronic autoimmune disease), and your lifestyle (your diet and activity level).

Available medications for osteoporosis include:

  • Bisphosphonates: This class of drugs is made up of alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), and zoledronic acid (Reclast). Some of medications are suitable for both men and women, though others like Boniva are designed exclusively for women.
  • Rank Ligand inhibitors: Suitable for both men and women, Rank Ligand inhibitors aim to reduce bone absorption.
  • Parathyroid hormone-related protein agonistsThis osteoporosis treatment aims to increase bone mass.
  • Hormone replacement therapy: Most of these treatment options are designed for women only, and can include selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) or tissue specific estrogen complex.

The Natural Treatment of Osteoporosis: 7 Alternative Treatment Options

If you’re looking for a natural cure for osteoporosis, you may need to temper your expectations, because osteoporosis is a condition that will most likely need to be managed indefinitely. However, if you’re unable or unwilling to take the pharmaceutical drugs meant to treat this disease and you want an alternative natural treatment of osteoporosis, here are some steps you can take to manage your symptoms and help halt the progression of bone loss.

1. A Healthy Diet

When it comes to osteoporosis foods, you’ll want to prioritize foods that contain the essential nutrients for bone health, like magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, vitamin K, and sources of calcium. Protein is important, as nearly half of our bones’ structure is made up of protein, and a high-protein diet may be extremely valuable to your health if properly balanced.

A mineral-rich diet to help combat osteoporosis includes the following.

  • Raw cultured dairy: Yogurt, kefir, amasai, and raw cheese all contain calcium, vitamin K, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin D.
  • Foods high in calcium: Calcium-rich foods include all dairy products, green vegetables (like kale, broccoli, okra, and watercress), almonds, and sardines.
  • Foods high in manganese: Manganese can be found in whole grains like brown rice, buckwheat, rye, teff, oats, and amaranth, as well as beans and legumes, macadamia nuts, and hazelnuts.
  • Wild-caught fish: Osteoporosis may be exacerbated by chronic inflammation, and the omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish can help reduce inflammation in the body. The best sources include anchovies, sardines, mackerel, wild salmon, and halibut.
  • Sea vegetables: Sea vegetables like nori, agar, wakame, algae, and kombu can provide critical minerals for bone formation and antioxidants for overall health.
  • Green leafy vegetables: For both vitamin K and calcium, green leafy vegetables like kale, mustard greens, spinach, Swiss chard, watercress, collard greens, dandelion greens, and escarole can provide valuable vitamin and mineral content.
  • Quality proteins: Diets low in protein can impair bone health in the elderly. The recommended daily amount of protein for adults is between 0.8-1.0 grams per kilogram (~2.2 pounds) of body weight. Foods high in protein include wild-caught fish, grass-fed meat, beans and legumes, nuts and seeds, fermented cheese and yogurt, as well as pastured eggs and poultry.

Foods to Avoid

Here are some foods and practices that could worsen your bone loss or contribute to overall bad health if you are at risk of osteoporosis.

  • Too much alcohol: Osteoporosis and alcohol don’t mix. Alcohol increases inflammation and can lead to calcium being leached from your bones.
  • Sweetened beverages: The high phosphorus content in soda can also remove calcium from your bones, and the sugar content of sweetened beverages can increase inflammation.
  • Processed red meat: A high intake of red meat and sodium may result in increased bone loss.
  • Caffeine: Though the risk is small, an excessive intake of caffeine without enough calcium ingestion to counteract it may result in bone loss.
  • Smoking: You should also discontinue smoking or avoid being around active smokers, as smoking can worsen many chronic health conditions including osteoporosis.

2. Physical Activity

Exercise of almost any sort can be beneficial for those with osteoporosis: yoga, strength training, swimming, you name it. Physical activity can help build bone mass, relieve stress, improve flexibility and balance, reduce inflammation, and more. However, there are some exercises that you may want to avoid if the intention is to protect increasingly fragile bones, such as activities that require too much twisting of the spine, bending from the waist, or jumping up and down. Instead, consider some of these other options for strength training.

  • Brisk walking
  • Lifting weights
  • Swimming
  • Bodyweight exercises
  • Tai chi
  • Yoga
  • Pilates
  • The elliptical machine

Gentler exercises are ideal, and using equipment like bands, light weights, chairs, and walls to assist you is encouraged. In fact, one study showed that the low-impact practice of tai chi can provide as much as a 47% decrease in the likelihood of falls for the adults who practice it.

If there is any lingering pain or soreness after trying a new exercise, consult with your doctor on whether there isn’t a better form of fitness more suited to your needs. Weight-training exercises are especially important for improving bone density, but always defer to your doctor’s advice when it comes to your specific health needs.

3. Help Prevent Dangerous Falls

The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that about 1/3 of all people over 65 will fall each year, and many times this results in fractured or broken bones. One serious break like a hip fracture could irrevocably damage an elderly person’s life or even cause their death, so here are important steps you can take to reduce your risk of falling.

  • Get up slowly from sitting or lying down positions.
  • Use a cane or walker for increased support.
  • Use a flashlight in the dark or keep your home well lit to avoid objects that may trip you up, especially in stairwells.
  • Wear comfortable, sturdy shoes that help you keep your balance (low-heeled shoes with rubber soles, boots, flats, sneakers, etc.).
  • Utilize handrail supports as you climb stairs or walk on inclines.
  • Be extra cautious in slippery conditions like rain or snow.
  • Avoid slippery walking surfaces like tile, highly polished marble, or floors that have recently been mopped.
  • Make sure paths are cleared in and around your home, including keeping clutter out of your driveway, off your porch, and up from the floors as much as possible (wires, cords, loose floor rugs).
  • Keep often-used items within reach, use assistive devices to avoid straining while reaching, and be sure to use a sturdy stepstool when needed.
  • Install support bars and non-slip items in your shower, tub, and bathroom.
  • Place non-skid mats and rugs in your kitchen and throughout your house.
  • Try not to move too quickly, as being in a rush makes falling more likely.
  • Consider using a personal emergency response system (PERS), and wear it on your person if you live alone, in case you need to call for assistance.

4. Essential Oils

Applying essential oils on affected areas of the body or consuming them may help aid bone repair, increase bone density, or relieve osteoporosis-related pain. Sage has been observed to help prevent bone absorption, and aroma-massage therapy with ginger and orange essential oils has shown short-term pain relief.

Other essential oils for osteoporosis relief include rosemary and thyme oils, peppermint, cypress, fir, helichrysum, eucalyptus, wintergreen, and lemongrass oil. Acupuncture may help to reduce stress as well—explore these therapies to find out which one works best for you.

5. Sunshine for Boosting Vitamin D Levels

As little as 20 minutes of sun exposure on your bare skin each day can help prevent a vitamin D deficiency. To gain enough vitamin D, it’s necessary to expose large areas of your skin to sunlight without sunscreen, but not for long periods of time (for those who are cautious about skin cancer). However, the darker your skin tone, the more time you will need to gain enough vitamin D from sunlight.

Studies suggest that older adults have a more difficult time making vitamin D than younger people do, even with the same amount of time spent in the sun. Likewise if you live in a cold, overcast climate (Chicago, Seattle, London, etc.) or are above the age of 60, you may want to take vitamin D3 supplements to ensure you get enough of this vital vitamin.

6. Osteoporosis Supplements

Here is a list of assorted supplements that may help you maintain bone health.

7. Discuss Medication Use with Your Doctor

If you require steroids to treat another health condition like asthma, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or lupus, you may need to take even more strenuous precautions to protect your bones, including regular exercise, a mineral-rich diet, and immediate cessation of smoking. Common steroidal medications include dexamethasone (Decadron), cortisone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone. Taking these medicines for longer than 3 months has been shown to increase your risk of losing bone mass and developing osteoporosis, so talk to your doctor about whether there are any possible alternative treatments or extra precautions you can take if they are indeed necessary.

Natural Sources of Strong Bones

Incorporating these natural treatments for osteoporosis can be the dietary and lifestyle change that saves you. The causes of osteoporosis include poor diet, lack of exercise, aging, hormonal changes, certain medications, medical conditions, and nutrient deficiencies, and while all of these factors can’t be avoided or cured, you have control over your diet and activity levels. Treatment for osteoporosis may involve medications, but natural supplements and remedies alongside your doctor’s treatment may help alleviate your symptoms and strengthen your bones to their maximum potential.

The Uses and Benefits of Magnesium Malate

Find out the benefits of magnesium malate, the suggested dosage, plus the difference between various forms of magnesium supplementation and which one has the best bioavailability. 

Magnesium malate is a form of magnesium that’s highly absorbable by human beings. It provides not only the benefits of magnesium, but also the benefits of malic acid. Malic acid is a nutrient that contributes to our energy production by turning food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that carries energy within our cells. That’s only the beginning of all that magnesium malate can do—read on to discover the scientifically backed benefits that magnesium malate can bring you.

Magnesium malate uses and benefits.

The Top Magnesium Malate Benefits

Magnesium is needed for cell formation and for maintaining your nerves, bones, and muscles. Most people can get the magnesium they need from their diet because it’s found in foods as diverse as whole grains, nuts, seeds, tofu, avocados, bananas, and dark chocolate. However, some people need to supplement magnesium to make sure they’re getting enough of this essential nutrient, and that is where magnesium malate comes in.

Because elemental magnesium is difficult for the body to absorb on its own, many supplements will bind magnesium to a salt for better absorption. Magnesium malate is one of those salt combinations, formed when magnesium is combined with malic acid.

Malic acid by itself is often taken by those seeking to improve their muscle performance, boost their mental focus, and reduce post-exercise fatigue. All those uses in one supplement means that this particular magnesium formation can help benefit those with conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Read on to find out what else magnesium malate can do.

Magnesium Malate for Sleep

Without enough magnesium, the hormone melatonin cannot function properly. Melatonin is responsible for sleep regulation, and without it you may find it difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep peacefully. Magnesium malate may help your sleep process, as magnesium is known to play a role in normal sleep regulation.

Magnesium Malate for Anxiety

Magnesium is important for stabilizing the nervous system, which is what allows us to withstand stress. A deficiency in magnesium can lead to heightened levels of stress, fatigue, and anxiety. Though more scientific research needs to be done to refine the understanding of magnesium’s effect on anxiety, it’s generally assumed that magnesium increases the neurotransmitters that block stress, like norepinephrine, while decreasing the ones that cause stress, like adrenaline and cortisol. Studies suggest that magnesium may be an effective treatment of anxiety due to its stress-stopping abilities.

Magnesium Malate for Constipation

Magnesium helps stimulate intestinal peristalsis (involuntary muscle contractions that move food through the digestive system) and helps soften stool by gathering water to the intestinal tract. These actions not only serve to prevent and treat constipation, but they also aid the body in performing its own natural detoxification processes.

Magnesium Malate for Bone Integrity

Magnesium is needed for building bone tissue and for improving the body’s absorption of calcium. This leads to magnesium playing an important role in maintaining bone density and preventing osteoporosis.

Magnesium Malate for Women’s Reproductive Health

The female reproductive system needs magnesium, and a review of the scientific literature shows that magnesium supplementation is effective in the prevention of premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and menstrual migraines. Women with the proper level of magnesium may find their menstrual cycles more manageable, while pregnant women will find magnesium supplementation even more vital because they are more vulnerable to magnesium deficiency. Since magnesium is a mineral needed for fetal development, protein synthesis, and tissue construction, magnesium supplementation is often a part of a woman’s prenatal care.

Magnesium Malate for Improved Energy Production

Both magnesium and malate are needed to produce energy at the cellular level. Without enough magnesium, our mitochondria struggle to produce energy, while malate helps speed up energy production. With the high bioavailability of magnesium malate, you can put both of these compounds to work quickly to help balance your energy production.

One review on treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia suggests that magnesium malate can help manage the symptoms, including the lack of energy that characterizes both conditions. ATP levels are low in patients with chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia, and it’s been suggested that magnesium malate may help boost energy and relieve tenderness and pain.

Magnesium Malate for Anti-Inflammatory Use

Magnesium is needed to maintain your calcium levels, and research suggests that too-high levels of calcium in the body cause inflammation. A magnesium deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation and may be a risk factor for conditions like arthritis and fibromyalgia.

Magnesium Malate for Muscle Development

Magnesium is used in synthesizing growth factors that influence the development of our muscle fibers. Magnesium has been found to help athletic performance and improve athletes’ strength.

Magnesium Malate for Depression

Due to magnesium’s role in synthesizing the hormones dopamine and serotonin, there is believed to be a link between magnesium deficiency and depression. One study with 126 adults found that magnesium supplementation was helpful in resolving mild-to-moderate depression after just 2 weeks. Though magnesium deficiency is not the only cause of depression, it could be a contributing factor that a magnesium supplement can help eliminate.

Magnesium Malate for Heart Health

If we don’t have enough magnesium, the electrical impulses of our hearts and the regeneration of our veins and arteries can be compromised. Magnesium deficiency is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification, and research suggests that supplementing with magnesium helps prevent heart disease, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation, vascular calcification (stiffening of the arteries), and atherosclerosis. Many studies show that that the proper amount of magnesium results in a 30% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

Magnesium Malate for Blood Pressure

Magnesium causes the walls of the blood vessels to relax, and in clinical trials it helps to lower blood pressure and treat hypertension. Patients with hypertension are found to have low levels of bodily magnesium, and some research suggests that magnesium supplementation may help increase the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs (just be sure to consult a health care professional before making any changes that may alter the effect of prescribed medication).

Magnesium Malate for Controlling Blood Sugar and Preventing Diabetes

Magnesium plays a critical role in the metabolism of sugar in our bodies. Magnesium deficiency is associated not only with erratic blood sugar levels, but also with diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Supplementation with magnesium can help control blood sugar levels and improve cholesterol ratios, and magnesium malate specifically (if made from L-malic acid) can help remove compounds that inhibit sugar breakdown and glycolysis.

Magnesium Malate vs. Citrate

Magnesium citrate is another magnesium preparation in salt form. It also increases water in the intestines and is often used as a laxative for the treatment of constipation. However, magnesium citrate has a far lower bioavailability rate than magnesium malate has, meaning you get more magnesium from the malate version.

Magnesium Malate vs. Glycinate

Much like magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate also has lower bioavailability than magnesium malate. Glycinate is the salt form of glycine, which like aspartate or aspartame, activates our NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. The NMDA receptors on our neurons help control our perception of pain, and when they’re overstimulated it can lead to severe pain, as with the NMDA receptors in the guts of those with colitis. This means that too much magnesium glycinate may actually be detrimental.

Magnesium Malate Dosage

Magnesium malate supplements are often taken orally alongside a meal. The National Institutes of Health give the following recommendations for the appropriate dosage per serving size.

For women:

  • 19-30 years: 310 milligrams
  • 31-up: 320 milligrams

For men:

  • 19-39 years: 400 milligrams
  • 31-up: 420 milligrams

Dosages of malic acid generally range from 1,200-2,800 milligrams per day. People who are athletes, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, or under high levels of stress may require more magnesium and should consult with their doctor to determine the optimal dosage.

Magnificent Magnesium

When looking for magnesium from a dietary supplement, you’ll want to make sure you have the best bioavailable form of magnesium, and magnesium malate may be exactly the form you need. You’ll want to keep the tablets in a cool, dry place, out of reach of children, but other than those precautions, you can easily add it your regimen of multivitamins and gain its amazing health benefits.

Inflammation of the Liver: The Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Learn about the causes and consequences of inflammation of the liver: the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and preventative measures you can take to avoid liver disease and liver failure.

Any health issue that adversely affects your liver has the potential to put your life in danger. Inflammation of the liver is a symptom of many serious medical conditions. We’ll detail these various liver diseases as well as what happens when your liver is under attack.

What Is the Function of the Liver?

The liver is your body’s largest organ, a dark-red gland that is located in the upper right area of your abdomen, just beneath your diaphragm. The bile produced by your liver collects into the gallbladder, located on the liver’s underside, which is itself attached to the small intestine via a bile duct. The manifold functions of the liver also include:

  • Blood filtration and the detoxification of alcohol, drugs, and environmental poisons
  • Converting sugars to glycogen
  • Breaking down and storing fatty acids
  • Synthesizing proteins like albumin (needed for regulating blood volume) and fibrinogen and prothrombin (essential coagulation factors)
  • Disposing of depleted blood cells by breaking them down to their basic components
  • Destroying bacteria filtered from the blood
  • Maintaining the balance of sex hormones (reducing the amount of naturally occurring male sex hormones in women and female sex hormones in men, known as estrogen dominance)
  • Policing the proteins that pass through the digestive system

What Is Inflammation of the Liver?

Inflammation of the liver occurs when your liver cells are attacked by disease-causing agents. The various symptoms that can be caused by liver inflammation, hepatitis, and liver disease include:

Yellowing of the skin and/or whites of the eyes (jaundice) Fatigue
Fluid buildup in the legs and ankles (edema) Itchy skin
A tendency to bruise or bleed easily Dark urine color
Abdominal pain and swelling (ascites) Chronic fatigue
Bloody or tar-colored stool Pale stool color
Nausea or vomiting Diarrhea
Unexplained weight loss Loss of appetite

Not all of these symptoms are as obvious as jaundice, and many could be signs of other conditions entirely, from stomach bleeding to heart failure to Wilson’s disease, a genetic disorder that occurs when copper builds up in the body, affecting the brain and liver. Such non-specific symptoms often make liver failure hard to diagnose, which is particularly dangerous because while your liver is out of commission, toxins could be accumulating in your body and your brain and causing new problems, one of which is liver cancer.

What Is Hepatitis?

The word “hepatitis” specifically refers to inflammation of the liver: from the Greek hêpar meaning “liver” and -itis meaning “inflammation” (as in arthritis, tendinitis, pancreatitis, etc.).

Hepatitis is often caused by either a viral infection or an autoimmune disorder that directs the body’s immune system to target the liver cells because it cannot differentiate healthy liver tissue from harmful invading cells.

There are several types of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, B, C, D and E, with hepatitises A and B being common causes of liver inflammation (though fortunately there are vaccines available for both). The following information on these conditions has been sourced from the Mayo Clinic and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Hepatitis A

This highly contagious liver infection is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is often contracted from contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person or object. Mild cases of hepatitis A often don’t require treatment, and most people who’ve been infected can recover completely, with no permanent damage to their liver. Severe cases can persist for several months, however, so getting the vaccine for hepatitis A is encouraged, as is practicing good hygiene to protect against the hepatitis A virus.

If you suspect you were exposed to the hepatitis A virus, an injection of the vaccine or the antibody immunoglobulin within two weeks of possible exposure may protect you from infection. Seek medical advice right away if there’s been a hepatitis A outbreak in your area (in a restaurant for example), if you’ve had close or sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis A, or of if you’ve traveled outside the country to areas like Mexico, Central, or South America, or to regions with poor sanitation practices.

Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) brings on this very serious liver infection. Hepatitis B infection can become chronic (lasting more than 6 months), increasing the risk of liver failure, liver cancer, and cirrhosis (the end-stage of extensive scarring of the liver).

While most adults are able to recover fully from hepatitis B infection, infants and children are more likely to develop chronic hepatitis B. While a vaccine can prevent the infection of hepatitis B, and preventative treatment may help if you receive it within 24 hours after exposure, there is no cure once you are infected. Contracting hepatitis B will mean taking precautions to prevent spreading the virus to others. Hepatitis B can be spread from:

  • Sexual contact: You may contract hepatitis B if you have unprotected sex with an infected person. While the virus is not spread by coughing or sneezing, direct contact with an infected person’s saliva, blood, semen, or vaginal secretions can communicate the virus.
  • Needle sharing: Hepatitis B can easily spread through contaminated syringes and needles, so sharing intravenous drug paraphernalia puts you at a much higher risk of contracting hepatitis B.
  • Accidental needle sticks: Health care workers and anyone else who comes into regular contact with human blood are at a higher risk of exposure to hepatitis B.
  • Mother to child: Pregnant women with hepatitis B can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth. In such cases, the newborn can immediately be vaccinated to avoid infection.

Risk factors for hepatitis B infection include engaging in unprotected sex, needle sharing, working in a health care job that exposes you to human blood, and traveling to certain areas with high hepatitis B infection rates, like Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for everyone, but especially for those who are at higher risk.

Hepatitis C

A viral infection with no preventative vaccine, hepatitis C (HCV) also leads to inflammation of the liver. Traditional treatment of hepatitis C used to involve weekly injections and oral medications with prohibitive side effects, but more recently chronic hepatitis C has become curable via oral medications taken over a period of 2-6 months.

The issue that remains, however, is that people are often unaware that they’re infected until the symptoms of liver inflammation arise, which could take decades to appear. Because of this long incubation, the CDC recommends that everyone born between 1945-1965 (colloquially known as Baby Boomers) get a one-time screening blood test, as they’re in a group that is 5 times more likely to be infected than the rest of the populace.

Acute hepatitis C infection does not always become chronic. Between 14-50% of those infected are able clear hepatitis C from their bodies after the acute phase in what’s known as “spontaneous viral clearance.” Fortunately, hepatitis C usually responds well to antiviral therapy, though there are several distinct types of hepatitis C around the world. While the symptoms and progression of each genotype is the same, the treatment variations depend on the strand. The type 1 genotype is most common in North America and Europe.

Risk factors for contracting hepatitis C include health care work, needle sharing, incarceration, receiving hemodialysis for an extended period, receiving a blood transfusion before 1992, or clotting factor concentrates before 1987. To avoid exposure, it’s recommended to not use illicit drugs, to be cautious about the hygienic practices of tattoo parlors, and to practice safe sex.

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D is also known as “delta hepatitis,” and is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). It is an uncommon infection in the United States, and only occurs in those who are first infected with hepatitis B, because hepatitis D is an incomplete virus that needs the function of hepatitis B to replicate itself. Hepatitis D is transmitted via intimate contact with infected blood (either percutaneous or mucosal), and can be acquired with hepatitis B (coinfection) or after the fact (superinfection). There is no vaccine for hepatitis D, but it can be prevented by getting vaccinated for the hepatitis B vaccine, because it is a codependent virus.

Hepatitis E

This viral condition is brought about by infection from hepatitis E (HEV), though it fortunately does not result in chronic infection. Quite uncommon in the United States, hepatitis E exists in many other parts of the world, often transmitted through ingesting trace amounts of infected fecal matter through either contaminated water or poor overall sanitation. There is no current vaccine for preventing hepatitis E.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

This condition is the result of drinking too much alcohol over a period of many years, though not all heavy drinkers will develop alcoholic hepatitis. The American Liver Foundation states that up to 35% of people who drink heavily develop alcoholic hepatitis. It remains unclear to researchers why this condition only happens to some heavy drinkers (and a few moderate drinkers) and not to all of them. Receiving the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis requires you to immediately stop drinking, as ingesting alcohol will only escalate the condition to life-threatening proportions.

Risk factors that contribute to developing alcoholic hepatitis beyond immoderate drinking include being infected with other forms of hepatitis, being obese, being a woman, or being a person of color (African American or Hispanic), as well as binge drinking and malnutrition—heavy drinkers tend to eat poorly, and alcohol and its byproducts can hinder digestive absorption. Most people who develop alcoholic hepatitis have a history of drinking the equivalent of 7 glasses of wine, beer, or liquor shots daily for over 20 years.

Preventative measures include drinking moderately or abstaining, avoiding viral hepatitis infection, and being careful not to mix medications with alcohol, especially pain relievers like acetaminophen, found in Tylenol, which has its own adverse impact on the liver.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that occurs when the immune system attacks your liver cells. The exact cause has never been scientifically pinpointed, but genetic and environmental factors appear to trigger the disease. While autoimmune hepatitis can be controlled via immune-suppressing drugs, if the condition does not respond to medication, it could lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, the need for a liver transplant, and death.

There are two types of autoimmune hepatitis that have been identified.

  • Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: The most common type of the disease, type 1 autoimmune hepatitis can occur at any age, and is often accompanied by other autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, or ulcerative colitis.
  • Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: Although it is possible for adults to develop type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, it’s more common in children and young adults.

Risk factors for autoimmune hepatitis include having other autoimmune diseases or a history of certain infections (like the measles, herpes simplex, or hepatitises A, B, and C), being female, or having a hereditary history that suggests a predisposition to the disease.

Liver inflammation: everything you need to know.

What Happens When the Liver Fails?

Because the liver plays a role in processing everything we eat and drink, any liver damage or inflammation is an emergency. Liver failure or hepatic failure is a life-threatening condition that can be either acute or chronic.

Acute Liver Failure

Acute liver failure is a rapid loss of liver function in someone who has no pre-existing liver condition, and is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization. Depending on the cause, acute liver failure may be reversed, but often the only cure is to receive a liver transplant.

Causes of acute liver failure include:

  • Acetaminophen overdose: The Mayo Clinic states that acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Acetaminophen is the active ingredient in Tylenol.
  • Prescription medications: Certain prescription medications like antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticonvulsants may cause acute liver failure.
  • Herbal supplements: Herbal drugs and supplements including ephedra, kava, pennyroyal, and skullcap have been linked to acute liver failure.
  • Viruses: Hepatitises A-E can cause acute liver failure, as well as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus.
  • Toxins: Toxins that can be responsible for acute liver failure include the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides (aka the “death cap”), and carbon tetrachloride, an industrial chemical in refrigerants, and solvents for waxes and varnishes.
  • Autoimmune disease: Liver failure can result from autoimmune hepatitis, wherein the immune system causes inflammation and injury to healthy liver cells.
  • Vascular diseases of the liver: Diseases such as Budd-Chiari syndrome can create blockages in the veins of the liver, resulting in acute liver failure.
  • Metabolic disease: Certain rare metabolic diseases like acute fatty liver of pregnancy and Wilson’s disease have the potential to cause acute liver failure, though it is an infrequent occurrence.
  • Cancer: Cancer that originates from or spreads to your liver can cause the liver to fail.
  • Septic shock: Massive infection or sepsis can overwhelm the body and severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing failure.

Though there is an extensive amount of known causes, many cases of acute liver failure have no obvious cause, and the complications can be dire, from cerebral edema (fluid buildup in the brain), to an inability of the blood to clot, to opportunistic infections in the blood, lungs, and urinary tract, to kidney failure. While it’s impossible to prevent the unknown causes of acute liver failure, it is nevertheless advised that you get vaccinated, avoid ingesting wild mushrooms, avoid coming into close contact with chemical substances, practice good hygiene, avoid or moderate alcohol use, and stay fit.

Chronic Liver Failure

Chronic liver failure is marked by the gradual destruction of liver tissue over many years.

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is the late-stage condition caused by scarring of the liver tissue. Cirrhosis is the result of the accumulation of scars that form whenever the liver is injured by either disease or toxin consumption and tries to repair itself. Cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and approximately half of those cases are due to alcohol abuse.

Chronic damage to the liver escalates to cirrhosis in these stages:

  • Scar tissue slowly begins replacing healthy functioning liver tissue.
  • Blood flow through the liver is progressively diminished by the encroachment of scar tissue.
  • As more and more normal liver tissue is lost, liver function declines.
  • Ultimately the liver becomes unable to produce proteins, or process nutrients, hormones, poisons, and drugs.

Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (ALD)

Alcoholic fatty liver disease results when fat cells get deposited in the liver, causing it to enlarge, and generally affects those who are both obese and heavy users of alcohol. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is preventable, and usually improves if you can stop drinking. If drinking continues and the condition progresses, it can lead to alcoholic hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis, which have all the same symptoms as listed above, plus potentially high blood pressure in the liver, an enlarged spleen, mental confusion, and internal bleeding. Alcohol-related fatty liver disease is the precursor before hepatitis and cirrhosis, and should be treated as an opportunity to halt the progression of liver failure.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an umbrella term for many liver conditions that affect those who drink little-to-no alcohol. The National Institutes of Health lists other health conditions as common contributors to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, which is another umbrella term for a condition that involves high levels of bad cholesterol, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and large amounts of belly fat. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can also cause chronic damage that progresses towards liver failure.

How Is Liver Failure Diagnosed?

Whatever the underlying cause of liver inflammation and liver failure, medical attention is necessary. Common methods of diagnosis involve blood tests to detect any abnormalities, imaging scans to get a picture of the liver (CTs, ultrasounds, MRIs), or a biopsy. During a biopsy, a small piece of the liver is extracted and examined to determine the extent of any liver damage. If the liver damage is caught early enough and the cause quickly identified, then the liver may be able to heal and recover. Going forward after a successful treatment, there are ways to prevent further liver damage.

How to Prevent Liver Inflammation and Damage

One of the best ways to prevent liver conditions from developing is to limit certain risk factors and increase your overall health.

  • Get vaccinated. Receiving the vaccines for hepatitises A and B helps guard your liver.
  • Beware of contaminated needles. Whether it’s from illicit drug use, medical conditions that require regular injectables (like diabetes), or work as a health care provider, always be wary of used needles.
  • Do not eat any wild plant foods. Consuming wild mushrooms or berries can expose you to toxins and environmental contaminants.
  • Limit your alcohol consumption. Consume no more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks for men.
  • Practice safe sex. Using condoms and dental dams helps limit sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Eating a nutritious plant-based diet of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats helps keeps fat deposits from building up in your liver.
  • Exercise. Staying physically active is a great boon to your overall health, from exercises as low-impact as walking to hitting the gym and taking fitness classes.
  • Lose excess weight. If you are obese or overweight, you can lose weight by reducing the number of calories you eat and increasing the amount of calories you burn.

Amino Acid Treatment of the Liver

On the cutting edge of developing science, amino acid therapies applied to the liver are showing amazing results. Studies have found that amino acid supplements are effective in treating both alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. One study found that long-term oral supplementation of branched-chain amino acids had positive effects for patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, while another showed that application of those same essential amino acids positively impacted patients with advanced chronic liver disease.

Yet another study revealed that the dysregulation of the branched-chain amino acids is a characteristic signature in adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, independent of the factors of obesity and insulin resistance. They also concluded that an amino acid disruption could predict an increase in liver fat content over time. For as mysterious as the causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can be, scientists have found that disordered amino acids are a consistent marker for it.

Liver Your Best Life

Inflammation of the liver can be both the cause and the symptom of serious liver conditions. The best way to avoid liver inflammation is to live a safe and healthy life and to make sure your essential amino acids are in the proper balance, as they have been scientifically shown to act as both a prevention and a cure for various liver diseases. If you suspect any issue with your liver’s function, visit your doctor immediately, because the importance of your liver is right there in its name: you need your liver to live. Fortunately the liver has the ability to recover and heal itself, so if you take care of it, it can take care of you for a long time.

Estrogen Dominance: Signs, Symptoms and Solutions

Estrogen dominance is a hormonal imbalance that can negatively impact your mind, your mood, and your body. Find out the symptoms of estrogen dominance and some natural solutions you can try to correct it. 

Estrogen dominance is a hormonal imbalance that essentially entails having too much estrogen compared to the rest of your hormones. When estrogen levels are too low, women can suffer from side effects, but too much estrogen also takes a toll on both women and men, with dangers ranging from fatigue to breast cancer. Symptoms of estrogen dominance are often treated in the medical community with hormonal birth control, but there are more natural ways to cure this condition. Read on to find out more about estrogen dominance and how to temper it.

The Importance of Estrogen

In women especially, the hormone estrogen is crucial to overall health, wellness, and functioning. Estrogen regulates menstruation, insulin sensitivity, hunger and satiety, cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and beyond. Without sufficient estrogen, women have symptoms like moodiness, hot flashes, brain fog, painful urination, and irregular periods. It’s important that estrogen not be too low, but high estrogen levels are an issue as well.

The Balance of Estrogen

Estrogen dominance is not solely a concern for women. Just as women also have low levels of testosterone in their bodies, men too have estrogen levels that need to stay in balance. In a woman, estrogen dominance might manifest as consistently heavy periods, whereas a man might have a more womanly shape (fuller breasts and hips) due to an imbalance of estrogen. When estrogen outweighs testosterone levels in men and progesterone levels in women, estrogen dominance can become an issue.

Estrogen dominance: the signs, symptoms, and solutions.

Estrogen Dominance Symptoms

An imbalance of progesterone (or testosterone) and estrogen, with the balance tilting way too much in favor of estrogen can result in the following symptoms in women:

  • Insomnia
  • PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
  • Brain fog
  • Weight gain (especially in thigh, hips, and midsection)
  • Mood swings
  • Fibrocystic breasts (lumpiness in breasts due to benign cysts)
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fibroids
  • Bloating
  • Endometriosis
  • Anxiety
  • Abnormal menstrual cycle
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Reduced sex drive

Men suffering from estrogen dominance are likely to experience one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Infertility
  • Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)
  • Sexual dysfunction

The Link Between Estrogen Dominance and Thyroid Dysfunction

While we’re on the subject, the link between thyroid issues and estrogen dominance is unclear, though some doctors suggest that cases of hypothyroid may be consequences of estrogen dominance, as the balance between estrogen and progesterone directly impacts thyroid function.

If any of these health problems concern you, consult a physician for medical advice and ask for a blood test of your hormonal balance to find out if you’re estrogen dominant. Read on for more potential causes of estrogen dominance, and what you can do on your own to alleviate or even eliminate these symptoms.

Possible Causes of Estrogen Dominance

Estrogen dominance can arise naturally due to genetics, or be influenced by environmental factors or prescribed medications. Let’s take a look at the potential influences on your hormone balance that may have a hand in causing estrogen dominance.

Hormonal Birth Control

One of the top culprits for causing estrogen dominance is hormonal birth control such as the birth control pill. This form of birth control is extremely popular, so much so that its introduction in 1960 had a wide social impact on women’s health.

Not only do doctors prescribe it to young women to help regulate their periods or control heavy bleeding, but it’s even prescribed to help control acne. There’s a commonly held belief that estrogen dominance may cause acne, though more research is still needed to determine the precise relationship between sex hormones and acne.

Women often start birth control young, and continue taking it throughout their reproductive lives without necessarily considering the side effects. Hormonal birth control can lead to a hormone imbalance, and unfortunately two of the symptoms of estrogen dominance are the very conditions doctors often prescribe birth control to treat: heavy bleeding and erratic periods. This creates a vicious cycle of excess estrogen, not to mention that birth control pills also release synthetic progesterone, which suppresses the body’s natural production of the hormone. Without enough progesterone for balance, the effects of estrogen become dominant.

Personal Care Products

There are many products on the market that contain xenoestrogens, a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen and can disrupt your hormone balance. The leading culprits include:

  • Parabens: Used as a preservative in toiletries like moisturizers, makeup, hair care, and shaving products, parabens can be spotted in the ingredients list as propylparaben, butylparaben, methylparaben, ethylparaben, isopropylparaben, and isobutylparaben. Deodorants and antiperspirants have mostly discontinued the use of parabens, but it’s a good idea to stay vigilant.
  • Phthalates: Phthalates can be found in plastics and are used as an emulsifying and stabilizing agent in topical and skin care products.
  • Benzophenones: This xenohormone alters estrogen and testosterone production and is often found in sunscreens.
  • Triclosan: Used as an antibacterial agent, triclosan acts on estrogen receptors and has been observed to increase the size of uteri and grow breast cancer cells in rats.

One tip to remember is that if a product has a strong perfume or chemical smell, there’s a relatively good chance it’s affecting your hormones. Better to choose products scented with essential oils, which don’t disrupt your hormones, and avoid products that only list “fragrance” on their ingredients list. You absorb the products you put on your skin, so it’s wise to be cognizant of the ingredients in your daily beauty and personal care products.

Estrogen in Food

No matter what you eat—vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivore—there are chemicals and pesticides used on your food that may contain endocrine disruptors and influence your estrogen levels. The most common herbicide worldwide is glyphosate. Researchers have linked glyphosate with female cancers, including one instance where it caused breast cancer cells to grow in vitro. Factory farmers also utilize hormones to spur faster growth in animals, making extra hormones an ingredient in both the meat and dairy products these animals produce.

Estrogen in Water

The Environmental Working Group has identified dozens of hormone-disrupting chemicals in our public drinking water. Food and personal care products are items you can control your consumption of, but what about the water coming from your tap? Even bottled water comes with plastic bottles leaching chemicals into the water, and canned drinks are often lined with BPA.

The cleanest water is found in locations that are far from mines, industrial complexes, and factory farms. For those in areas with suspect water, a high-quality filter is recommended.

Being Overweight

The body produces estrogen naturally in the brain, adrenal glands, and the ovaries or testes. Estrogen is also produced in the body fat of both men and women. That means that the more fat cells you have, the more estrogen you produce.

Stress

High levels of estrogen can be the result of chronic stress. This is due to the hormone pregnenolone, the “multitasking” hormone, a precursor to both stress and sex hormones. When stressed, your body depletes its pregnenolone supply, meaning there isn’t enough pregnenolone left around to make the proper levels of progesterone. Without progesterone to regulate estrogen, symptoms of estrogen dominance may arise, like weight gain and PMS.

How to Reverse Estrogen Dominance Naturally

Estrogen dominance is best corrected by treating the root cause. Consider these natural estrogen dominance treatment recommendations as potential curatives for your symptoms.

  • Discontinue taking birth control. Ask your physician for non-hormonal birth control options, such as a diaphragm.
  • Replace your personal care products. Seek out nontoxic versions of the toiletries you regularly use and enjoy. These days more people and companies are aware of these toxins and provide alternative options.
  • Eat organic foods. You can correct estrogen dominance via diet if you do your best to choose organically sourced meats and plant foods. Purchase animal products from small-scale farmers who do not use hormones on their livestock, and produce from those who don’t crop-dust with harmful herbicides.
  • Filter your water. You may not be able to move away from contaminated water sources, but you can purchase a triple-stage filter (sediment, ceramic, and activated charcoal) that strains out harmful particles and viruses.
  • Support your detox pathways. For those toxins that still find a way in, herbs and supplements like dandelion root tea, milk thistle, calcium d-glucarate, and glutathione help support the liver’s efforts to detox your body.
  • Lose weight. Reducing your body fat can help return your hormone levels to an optimal balance. Whether it’s through dietary changes, increased physical activity, or both, losing weight can help you feel better in a thousand beneficial ways.
  • Destress: As with your water source, you can’t always control the stress that comes in, but you can control how you manage it. Stick to a regular routine, get a good night’s sleep, and take time for personal care, whether that’s in the form of meditation, yoga, therapy, or quality time with friends, family, and loved ones.

Assert Your Dominance

Start with these tips, and seek expert advice if needed when it comes to a hormonal imbalance. Whether it’s communicating your symptoms clearly and seeking a medical professional who will listen, or taking control of the influencing factors in your daily life, you can assert your own dominance over a case of estrogen dominance.