Autophagy and Fasting: What Does the Science Say?

Autophagy is the body’s recycling program, which can be triggered by intermittent fasting. Autophagy is key in removing the toxins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, reusing residual proteins for energy and repair, and prompting the regeneration of cells throughout our bodies.

This article will discuss what autophagy fasting is, how it works, and whether or not the science backs up this practice.

What Is Autophagy?

We’ll start with the definition of autophagy: “auto” meaning “self” and “phagy” meaning “eats” tells you that the literal translation of autophagy is “self-eating.” That sounds scarier than the reality—we’re not talking about some flesh-eating bacteria or even the more common sort of self-cannibalization that our bodies do to our muscles when in need of energy, catabolizing.

Autophagy is more like a recycling program, or cutting your hair to keep it healthy and free of split-ends. It’s the body’s process of clearing out damaged cells so that it can regenerate new and healthier cells in their place. It’s almost like the internal equivalent of the exfoliating we do outside to keep our skin healthy.

The Details of Autophagy

Autophagy is a highly regulated process that delivers cellular waste material to lysosomes to be degraded, recycled, and then used to generate molecules to fuel cellular metabolism. For the specifics: scientist and Nobel prize winner Christian de Duve coined the term autophagy in 1962, when researchers discovered an increased amount of lysosomes in rat liver cells after an infusion of glucagon. It was also discovered that autophagy is regulated in part by the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which promotes or represses autophagy as needed.

Autophagy and fasting: your body's recycling program.

What Does Autophagy Do?

The normal process of autophagy impacts your body and your health in various ways.

Promotes Metabolic Efficiency

The dysregulation of autophagy may contribute to developing metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis. From the very cellular level, autophagy can be used to improve the efficiency of mitochondria. The mitochondria in cells are the energy-makers, and the process of autophagy feeds them proteins from damaged cells that would otherwise either go to waste, or clog up other processes in the body.

Assists Against Neurodegenerative Disorders

In cases of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, selective autophagy can help clean up the specific proteins that form in and around the brain’s neurons and result in neurodegenerative symptoms. While autophagy was previously thought of as a nonselective process of digestion, it’s now understood that autophagy receptors make this a selective process, involving a cellular form of quality control.

Fights Infectious Disease

One of the central functions of autophagy is to control infections. It removes the toxins that create infections and helps your immune system adapt its response to infection. Viruses as well as intracellular microorganisms and bacteria can be removed via autophagy.

Improves Muscle Performance

The oxidative stress placed on our cells during exercise can trigger instances of autophagy to help remove some of the damaged cellular debris and support our energy needs. Autophagy is necessary for exercise-induced muscle adaptation and the improvement of physical performance.

Prevents Cancer Growth

This is a double-edged sword, because while autophagy can clean up the damaged DNA and chronic inflammatory aspects of cancer development, some forms of cancer will attempt to usurp the process and use it to a detrimental advantage. Regulating the autophagy pathway is important for inhibiting cancer growth.

What Is Autophagy from Fasting?

Autophagy via fasting occurs when you take the reins of autophagy by carefully controlling your dietary intake. This is usually done in an attempt to trigger safe yet fast weight loss. Here are two types of dieting that can bring about targeted autophagy.

Autophagy via Intermittent Fasting

Stressing your cells is a quick way to turn on the autophagy process in your body, but you don’t want to overly stress your body for too long lest the cure be worse than the cold. Intermittent fasting can create a useful nutrient deprivation in your cells, just as exercising will create a certain amount of oxidative stress to purposefully trigger your repair mechanisms into building muscle.

Intermittent fasting is not so much a diet as a pattern of eating, with daily short-term fasting of 16 hours, or longer fasts of 24 hours twice a week. How long until autophagy from fasting begins? It begins whenever your liver glycogen depletes, which occurs between 12-16 hours into a fast. This isn’t a deprivation so much as a return to the eating pattern humans evolved to survive under when we didn’t have supermarkets open 24/7. Intermittent fasting in that sense is more natural than eating three square meals a day, and can lead to long-term, sustainable weight loss, as well as better overall health when practiced…well, intermittently.

Autophagy via Ketosis

The ketogenic diet (or keto diet) is another way to get the benefits of fasting without actually fasting. This high-fat, low-carb diet breaks down to about 75% of your daily calories from fat, 20% from protein, and 5% from carbohydrates.

By putting a caloric restriction on carbs, you end up shifting your body’s go-to source of energy from quick glucose to fat. That fat burning starts first with the fat you eat, and then quickly turns to burning the fat stores already on your body for a reliable energy source. This produces ketone bodies that bring protective effects, and research suggests that ketosis can also bring about periods of autophagy, which has its own health benefits for the body.

Autophagy via Exercise

Exercise is a non-diet-related way of inducing autophagy. An animal study suggests that physical exercise may bring about autophagy in specific organs that are involved in metabolic regulation, namely the pancreas, liver, adipose tissue, and muscles.

Adding intermittent fasting and regular exercise to your lifestyle is an excellent way to stimulate autophagy in your body. To make sure you have the ability to build muscle while fasting or utilizing calorie restrictions, you may want to supplement with a full host of the amino acids necessary for protein synthesis. That way the required ingredients for new muscle are never out of balance.

The Potential Benefits of Autophagy

Autophagy is the body’s way of replacing old cells with new and younger ones, a regeneration effect that can help optimize our lifespans. As with any process in the body, autophagy declines as we age—waste accumulates and the regeneration rate decreases. This invariably leads to many symptoms of aging, which is why targeted autophagy fasting is so appealing.

Autophagy and Anti-Aging Potential

The benefits of autophagy are still being explored by scientists for its anti-aging potential, from the cellular level of the brain to the surface level of the skin. Those looking to employ autophagy via fasting to the loose skin left over after dramatic weight loss can find hope in studies suggesting that the slowing of natural autophagy is associated with a deterioration of dermal integrity, and that the fibroblasts that produce collagen (which keeps our skin youthful and pliable) suffer when autophagy decreases as we age. It stands to reason that if our collagen-producing fibroblasts get clogged due to a lack of autophagy, a targeted increase in autophagy frequency can free them up again, thus preventing and counteracting the aging of our skin.

Autophagy and Anti-Cancer Potential

The buildup of cellular waste affects our bodies from surface to core, as discussed previously with neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s. Fasting and autophagy applied to cancer treatment have been shown to inhibit tumor growth. Autophagy fasting is still being fully explored by researchers hoping to prevent cancers from forming via the clean-up efforts of autophagy.

Some studies indicate that cancerous cells can be detected and destroyed through autophagy, before they can proliferate and start using the body’s processes against itself. Targeted use of autophagy, and keeping that process from being hijacked by cancers, may lead to new therapies for cancer treatment.

Fasting for Autophagy

Autophagy is our body’s recycling program, beneficial in removing the toxins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, reusing residual proteins for energy and repair, and prompting the regeneration of new and healthy cells throughout our bodies. On a cellular level, it’s like a regeneration episode of Doctor Who, but instead of science fiction, this process is science fact, and you have the ability to use it to your health’s advantage via targeted fasting.

Top 24 Vegetarian Protein Sources

The top 24 vegetarian protein sources, including a list of valuable complete proteins, and information on the unique health benefits each food provides to the human body.

The quest for vegetarian protein sources is an important one. Protein and amino acid deficiency can lead to muscle loss, delayed healing, difficulty concentrating, and increased levels of depression and anxiety. When your body’s lacking what it needs, you won’t feel right, and you’ll know it.

This is why it’s important to make sure you get the protein intake you need from a vegetarian diet. Incomplete proteins like whole grains, produce, and nuts can do the job in concert with one other, but there are some foods that contain all nine essential amino acids required for proper human functioning: complete proteins.

We’ve assembled a list of the best vegetarian proteins below. Any of these foods will help ward off the symptoms of protein deficiency, but the complete protein foods listed at the end are for those who want to do some one-stop shopping when it comes to their amino acids intake.

Top 24 vegetarian protein sources.

Nuts and Seeds

We’ve compiled some of the healthiest and handiest snacks around.

1. Hemp Seeds

Rich in omega-3 fatty acids, hemp seeds are a protein source that can aid against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease. Hemp seeds are small sources of fiber that can be easily added to just about any food—stirred into oatmeal, blended into a protein shake or smoothie, or even sprinkled onto a salad. With 3.3 grams of protein per tablespoon, this is an easy ingredient to include in the foods and meals you already eat.

2. Almonds

Full of the amino acid arginine, almonds as a snack can contribute to healthy weight loss and fat burning, reduce the risk of heart disease, and curb hunger. With 6 grams of protein per ounce, almonds are also a source of nutrients that contribute to brain health, like vitamin E, folate, and carnitine, known for its neuroprotective benefits.

3. Cashews

Another conveniently healthy snack, cashews are an excellent resource for minerals like copper, manganese, magnesium, and phosphorus. With a fair amount of vitamin K, cashews also contain biotin, which is used for hair and nail health, and they have 5 grams of protein per ounce.

4. Pumpkin Seeds

Pumpkin seeds contain magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, antioxidants and 9 grams of protein per ounce. Containing the amino acid arginine, pumpkin seeds can help in situations of hair loss, and can be eaten raw or baked with added flavors like honey (for sweet) or garlic powder (for savory).

Beans and Legumes

Here are some hardy foods to add substantial protein to your diet.

5. Lentils

Lentils are a complete protein, but there’s a catch: they contain all nine essential amino acids, but they don’t contain sufficient methionine to meet ideal amino acid intake. Just 1 cup of lentils has 18 grams of protein, the same amount as three eggs. With a high-fiber content, lentils are filling when eaten and slow down digestion in a way that could help blunt spikes in blood glucose (a contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes).

6. Black Beans

With 39 grams of protein per cup, black beans are a heavy hitter in the protein department and a terrific way to meet your copper, manganese, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron needs. Black beans are a great way to add valuable density to a pot.

7. Chickpeas

Chickpeas, also known as garbanzo beans, are legumes high in the amino acid lysine as well as fiber, iron, folate, zinc, phosphorus, and B vitamins. Just 1 cup of chickpeas has 39 grams of protein. Extremely popular in the form of hummus, when eaten with pita bread, that combined snack can become a complete protein.

Protein-Rich Grains

These modern and ancient grains are the staff of life.

8. Amaranth

An ancient grain that is naturally gluten free, amaranth offers up digestive fiber and calcium. Porridge-like when cooked, it is a particularly healthy replacement for or addition to morning cereal and oatmeal. It provides 9 grams of protein per cup.

9. Teff

A lesser-known ancient grain from the Ethiopian region, Teff is full of essential amino acids, vitamin C (quite unusual in a grain), and calcium. With 10 grams of protein per cup, again it could replace or enhance a bowl of oatmeal, a helping of grits, or a side of rice.

10. Triticale

Triticale is another whole grain (wheat-rye hybrid) with 24 grams of protein per cup and rich in iron, potassium, magnesium, and fiber. Triticale can be used instead of traditional baking flour in recipes.

Fruits and Veggies

Vitamin-rich vegetables and even some fruit can provide protein.

11. Spinach

With 5 grams of protein per cooked cup, spinach has almost the equivalent amount of protein as a hard-boiled egg (at half the calories). Eating spinach raw or steamed maintains the maximum amount of nutrients, namely high amounts of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin K, folic acid, iron, and calcium.

12. Tomatoes

Tomatoes contain lycopene, an antioxidant that may reduce your risk of bladder, lung, prostate, skin, and stomach cancers, as well as your risk of coronary artery disease. With 6 grams of protein per cup, tomatoes provide fiber and calcium and make a refreshing addition to many salads, sandwiches, and salsas.

13. Guava

This high-protein fruit has more than 4 grams of protein per cup. Along with fiber, guava has over 600% of your daily recommended vitamin C (about seven oranges worth). A brightly colored and delightfully zesty treat to include in any diet.

14. Artichokes

Artichokes are a good source of niacin, magnesium, potassium, copper, vitamin C, vitamin K, and folate. With about 10 grams of plant protein per cup, it has one of the highest protein yields among vegetables, and the artichoke has nearly twice the fiber of kale.

15. Peas

A high-protein food with 8 grams of protein per cup and nearly 100% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C, peas add a tantalizing texture to salads and mashed potatoes. Of course, they’re also enjoyed as a side dish all on its own. You can even mash them up for baby food, or flavor that mash and use it as a veggie spread for your morning toast.

Complete Proteins

Here’s the good stuff, the protein sources that contain all nine essential amino acids needed in your diet.

16. Quinoa

With 8 grams of protein per cup, quinoa is an ancient grain with wide modern popularity, included in over 1,000 products on the market and regularly showing up in strange places (like wrapped around a sushi roll or pressed into a veggie burger). With a mild flavor, quinoa can be seasoned to a variety of taste preferences and is an excellent source of unsaturated fats and fiber. Along with the nine essential amino acids, quinoa also contains the amino acid L-arginine, shown to promote muscle over fat gain in animal studies (let’s hope that proves true for the most dangerous game animal of all: humans!). In fact, quinoa contains about a dozen amino acids, making it a wonderful alternative to carbs like couscous or rice.

17. Soybeans

Soybeans and soy products like tofu and soy milk all contain protein: steamed soybeans have 8 grams per cup, tofu 20 grams per cup, and soy milk 4 grams per cup. Soy foods offer cardiovascular benefits, help prevent prostate and colon cancer, decrease hot flashes for women in menopause, and guard against osteoporosis. Tofu particularly can be formed and flavored to fit a variety of recipes.

18. Buckwheat

With 6 grams of protein per cup, buckwheat is a gluten-free seed full of fiber (more than the amount found in oatmeal) and magnesium, a mineral that’s important to metabolism. Buckwheat is not a wheat but a versatile cousin of rhubarb that can nevertheless function as a pancake mix, be formed into Japanese soba noodles, or be eaten as porridge.

19. Ezekiel Bread

Sprouted bread or Ezekiel bread has 4 grams of protein per slice and is made with the sprouted grains and legumes wheat, barley, lentils, beans, spelt, and millet. It contains 18 amino acids, including all 9 essential amino acids, which is not even close to true for most bread products. With one sandwich on Ezekiel bread you can gain 8 grams of protein during lunch alone.

Fun fact: Ezekiel bread is named after this passage in the Bible from Ezekiel 4:9: “Take wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt, put them in one vessel and make them into bread for yourself.” Intended as a last resort to make bread when a besieged Jerusalem was running low on supplies, it turned out to be a fantastic recipe fit for modern times, and an extraordinarily nutritious food.

20. Spirulina

Used as a whole food or dietary supplement, the vibrantly green spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria that can be eaten by humans and other animals. With 4 grams of protein per powdered teaspoon, it also provides the B vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (niacin), along with copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, and manganese. An odd taste at first, spirulina can nevertheless be added to a variety of foods for the bevy of benefits it provides.

21. Quorn

Developed in the U.K. in the 1980s from a fungus relative of mushrooms and truffles, Quorn is often used as a faux meat in the form of tenders, burgers, and lasagna filling. With over 20 grams of fiber per cup, this product contains all nine essential amino acids.

22. Peanut Butter

With 65 grams of protein per cup, peanut butter is a tasty protein source that can be made into cookies, sandwiches, included in smoothies, and used as a spread on crackers or celery (add some raisins to make the classic “ants on a log” snack). Peanut butter also contains healthy fats and could prevent both cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Choose the unsalted kind, with no hydrogenated oils or sugars added, and have a guilt-free treat!

23. Chia Seeds

With 2.5 grams of protein per tablespoon, chia seeds don’t contain that much protein, but they can easily make up for it by providing all nine essential amino acids. Chia seeds can absorb moisture and become gel-like, making them a fun addition to pudding and smoothies, and the omega-3s in chia seeds can help reduce the risk of heart disease. They can be sprinkled over soups and salads, made into a chia seed pudding for dessert, and used as an egg replacement in vegan cooking recipes once they are fully hydrated.

24. Eggs

Speaking of eggs, this last item is for the ovo-vegetarians only, but too important to leave off the list entirely. Eggs are one of the most nutrient-filled protein sources around. With 6 grams of protein per egg, they contain the disease-fighting nutrients lutein and zeaxanthin and are a classic breakfast food whether they’re prepared scrambled, sunny side up, baked into a quiche, or separated to make an egg white omelet. Along with being versatile as their own main ingredient (egg salad, deviled eggs, etc.), eggs are also a great binding element for cauliflower pizza dough or egg-washing cookies before baking.

Plentiful Vegetarian Protein Sources

A protein deficiency doesn’t have to be a concern for those keeping to a vegetarian diet, and in fact, since plant-based sources of protein are so abundant, protein deficiency in vegetarian and vegan diets is actually quite rare. There are many ways to add enough protein to your diet that will support healthy weight loss, increase muscle mass, and improve your overall health and well-being.

On a deeper level, choosing complete proteins to include in one’s diet gets down to the cellular level of wellness, providing the nine essential amino acids that only come to humans via dietary intake. The more you know about what your food truly provides to the human body, the more precise your choices (and recipes) will become.

While animal proteins are higher quality in that they contain an adequate balance of the essential amino acids our bodies need, some plant proteins are low in essential amino acids such as methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and isoleucine. If you’re adhering to a plant-based diet, it’s a good idea to supplement with an essential amino acid blend to improve the balance of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids, especially if you don’t want to have to think so hard about mixing and matching plant-based proteins to make them more complete.

How to Heal Gastritis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A general term, gastritis refers to a group of conditions that result in inflammation of the stomach lining. With knowledge of the various causes, symptoms, and available treatments, it’s possible to take control of the situation and both treat and heal gastritis.

Gastritis is a condition that leads to inflammation of the stomach lining. Episodes of acute gastritis may occur suddenly and last only a short time, while chronic gastritis may last weeks, months, or even years. While most cases of gastritis aren’t serious, the condition can occasionally lead to complications, including peptic ulcers and even stomach cancer. But with knowledge of the various causes, symptoms, and available treatments, it’s possible to take control of the situation and both treat and heal gastritis.

Causes of Gastritis

Gastritis can be caused by a number of factors, including damage to the lining of the stomach due to bacteria or viruses or thinning due to age. But by far, the majority of cases are caused by a type of bacteria known as Helicobacter pylori, or H pylori for short.

In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately two-thirds of the world’s population suffers from H pylori infection. Additional risk factors associated with gastritis include:

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Heavy alcohol use
  • Stress
  • Bile reflux

Signs, Symptoms, and Potential Complications of Gastritis

Interestingly, many people with gastritis never have any symptoms. In addition, people who are infected with H pylori in childhood may not have any symptoms until they reach adulthood. However, if gastritis symptoms are present, they may include:

  • Upper abdominal pain or burning
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Indigestion
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal fullness after eating

Symptoms of gastritis may be mild or severe and, if left untreated, can sometimes result in serious complications. Some of these include:

  • Peptic ulcers: Both NSAIDs and H pylori increase the risk of developing duodenal and stomach ulcers.
  • Atrophic gastritis: A complication especially of chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis leads to destruction of the stomach’s mucosa and can develop into gastric cancer.
  • Pernicious anemia: Gastritis caused by autoimmune conditions can lead to loss of the stomach cells that help the body absorb vitamin B12, which results in impaired production of red blood cells.

If your symptoms don’t improve or worsen or you develop any shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, vomiting with blood, blood in the stool, or black, tarry stool, see your health care provider right away. These are all symptoms of bleeding in the stomach and require immediate medical attention.

Tips to improve gastritis

Diagnosing Gastritis

While your health care provider will probably suspect gastritis after speaking with you about your medical history and conducting a physical exam, they may also choose to perform additional tests to determine the exact cause and help guide treatment. These tests may include:

  • H pylori testing: H pylori bacteria can be detected using breath, blood, or stool tests. Your health care provider may choose any of these, though the fecal antigen test has been found to be the most accurate.
  • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series: To perform an upper GI series, you’ll be asked to drink a chalky powder (barium) mixed with water and then undergo an X-ray. The barium coats your esophagus, stomach, and small intestine and absorbs the X-rays, making the organs of your upper digestive tract easier to see.
  • Endoscopy: An endoscopy uses a flexible tube with a lens, passed down the throat, to identify signs of inflammation in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. If any abnormalities are found, biopsies (tissue samples) may be taken for laboratory analysis.

Treatment to Heal Gastritis

Once the diagnosis of gastritis has been confirmed, treatment will be tailored to the specific cause, though therapy should address any symptoms that are present as well.

In the case of pernicious anemia resulting from atrophic gastritis, B12 injections may be administered to help prevent complications of B12 deficiency.

Symptomatic treatment may also be provided in the form of medications designed to decrease the level of acid produced by the stomach, thereby helping to promote healing of the inflamed stomach lining. These types of medications include proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 blockers, and antacids, such as:

  • Omeprazole (Prilosec)
  • Esomeprazole (Nexium)
  • Ranitidine (Zantac)
  • Famotidine (Pepcid)
  • Alka-Seltzer
  • Maalox

When addressing the cause of gastritis, treatment may be as simple as removing the offending agent, such as alcohol, or, in the case of NSAIDs, recommending a dose reduction or change to another type of medication.

If you’re found to have H pylori infection, you’ll be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria and decrease your risk of developing complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Several natural remedies have also been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of H pylori:

  • ProbioticsAccording to a study published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, probiotics may be helpful in treating H pylori due to their activation of the immune system and direct competition with the pathogen.
  • Green teaStudies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of green tea, along with its lower levels of caffeine, may reduce the risk of developing gastritis by 40%.
  • Broccoli sprouts: A study found that daily intake of broccoli sprouts for 2 months reduces H pylori colonization in mice and decreases the risk of complications in both mice and humans.
  • Honey: A study found that honey decreases stomach acid production and aids in the healing of the stomach lining.
  • Nigella sativa (black seed): A study found that a mixture of black seed and honey was effective in treating both H pylori infection and dyspepsia.

While gastritis caused by H pylori, NSAIDs, or alcohol may be rather easily treated with the use of antibiotics (in the case of H pylori) or withdrawal of the offending agent (in the case of NSAIDs and alcohol), the treatment of gastritis resulting from other causes may be more complex. Cases resulting from stress or autoimmune disorders, for example, may benefit from equal parts healing and therapeutic prevention.

The Best Gastritis Diet

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), research has not been able to find a significant connection between a person’s diet and nutritional status and the development or prevention of gastritis.

However, the Mayo Clinic advises several changes to the diets of people suffering from gastritis. These include eating frequent, small meals and avoiding fried, fatty, acidic, or spicy foods.

Other sources suggest that foods known for their anti-inflammatory properties and ability to support immune and digestive system health may be helpful in fighting both the underlying causes and inflammation that characterize gastritis.

When choosing foods to aid in recovery from gastritis and help prevent its return, look for foods high in fiber, lean protein, antioxidants, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. And be sure to avoid substances that irritate your sensitive stomach lining, such as carbonated beverages, coffee, and processed foods.

Tips to improve gastritis

Amino Acids for Gastritis

There’s also a growing body of evidence indicating that the use of certain supplemental amino acids may be beneficial in the treatment of gastritis.

For example, studies have shown that a combination of zinc and carnosine peptide—a substance derived from the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine—is effective against H pylori and has the ability to repair the stomach’s damaged mucosal lining. One study also found that these effects were perfectly achievable with the use of over-the-counter zinc carnosine supplements.

Another study found that the amino acid N-acetylcysteine (NAC) leads to improvements in both symptomatology and endoscopic findings in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.

In addition, a study in the Journal of Nutrition found that the amino acid glutamine has the ability to decrease the inflammation and mucosal abnormalities associated with H pylori infection.

The pain and discomfort of gastritis, when they occur, are never pleasant and shouldn’t be ignored. But with appropriate treatment and the help of your health care provider—who can provide you with tips on everything from reducing stress to eradicating H pylori and supporting the body’s healing process with proper nutrition—symptoms can be alleviated and healing achieved.

What Is the Keto Diet—and Can Amino Acids and Other Supplements Really Improve Results?

Consistently following a ketogenic diet, or keto diet, is an effective way to lose weight and keep it off. Taking amino acids along with following a keto diet can expedite the metabolic processes responsible for ketogenic weight loss.

People diet for different reasons, such as preventing or treating infection, managing diabetes, gaining muscle mass, or maintaining a healthy weight. Weight loss is the most popular reason for dieting, but weight loss can be quite difficult to achieve depending on the type of diet you follow. If you’re interested in how the foods you eat can impact your weight and well-being, chances are, you’ve encountered the phrase “keto diet,” but you may still be wondering: “What is the keto diet?”

The ketogenic diet, often shortened to the keto diet, is an extremely low-carbohydrate diet approach (even sticter than the infamous Atkins diet) that proponents state can train your body to burn fat more efficiently. Many individuals have shared their experiences using the keto diet to lose weight, improve their overall health, and enhance physical and mental performance, leading to increased interest in the diet. Some of the benefits of the keto diet have been validated by scientific studies and a growing number of medical professionals recommend it as a means of addressing lifestyle-related chronic conditions.

As more and more people adopt a keto diet, often with the goal of losing weight and keeping it off, some have begun exploring whether certain supplements can improve their results. It appears that amino acids show particular promise as a means of enhancing metabolic processes responsible for ketogenic weight loss.

In this article, we’ll provide an introduction to the keto diet, cover some of the most common benefits associated with the keto diet, and then share the best keto diet supplements to take and how those supplements can help accelerate your keto diet results.

What Is the Keto Diet?

The ketogenic diet was developed in the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy. Traditionally, it was used to treat children, but in recent years, it has been used to treat adults with epilepsy that does not respond to other interventions. And, of course, its use has expanded far beyond that initial medical context.

After the fat-free diet craze went bust, researchers turned their attention to carbohydrates. Ironically, diets that discourage fatty foods often encourage the consumption of low-fat, fat-free, or trans-fat options loaded with highly processed ingredients that the body stores as fat. Low-fat diets tend to place less emphasis on monitoring the intake of carbohydrates, which can greatly jeopardize calorie-burning processes at the cellular level.

Carbohydrates come in many food forms; sugars, complex carbohydrates (starches), and fiber are the three main types. Regularly consuming carbohydrates over time has been linked to higher risk of developing chronic illness, especially cardiovascular disease.

How the Keto Diet Encourages Your Body to Burn More Fat

The foundational principle of the keto diet is rigid carbohydrate restriction. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of fuels; however, your body can also run off of fat. When you keep your carb intake below a certain threshold while adhering to a high-fat diet, your body switches from burning carbs for fuel to burning fat.

The “keto” in ketogenic refers to small fuel molecules called ketones that your body runs off of when it does not have access to significant quantities of glucose (blood sugar) from carbohydrates.

When you eat carbohydrates, your body quickly converts them into glucose via a process called glucogenesis. Excess protein can also be converted to glucose. The glucose produced from carbohydrates and protein can be used to power your body, but any that’s not immediately needed gets stored as fat.

If your body does not have a ready supply of glucose, it switches over to a process called ketogenesis. The liver converts loose fatty acids into ketone bodies that cells use for energy while the body metabolizes fat and burns calories at a high rate. Ketosis, a term that pops up frequently in reference to the keto diet, describes the moment when the body enters the metabolic state in which it’s running off of fat rather than carbohydrates.

The quickest way to enter a state of ketosis is to fast, but that short-term approach has its limitations. Adopting the keto diet allows you to enter and stay in ketosis for a sustained period of time.

Consistently following a comprehensive ketogenic diet, otherwise known as the keto diet, is an effective way to lose weight and keep it off. Taking amino acids along with following a keto diet can expedite the metabolic processes responsible for ketogenic weight loss.

The Basics of the Keto Diet

Entering a state of ketosis does require some number crunching to track nutrient intake, something many other diets involve too. The basic ratios of the keto diet are:

  • 70% to 75% fat
  • 15% to 25% protein
  • 5% carbohydrates

The most crucial aspect of these ratios is carbohydrate intake. Most individuals will need to limit their carb intake to 50 grams or fewer of net carbs per day. Some experience even greater benefits with a daily carb intake below 20 grams.

For the best keto diet results, you will also need to pay attention to how much protein you consume. The bulk of your calories should come from high-fat, moderate-protein foods, since excess quantities of protein can be converted into glucose.

Athletes or individuals who engage in high-intensity activity should monitor their performance when on the keto diet and may require more protein and carbohydrates for peak metabolic function. One to two days of carbohydrate refueling followed by ketogenic dieting the remaining days of the week is a common dietary program for high-endurance performers.

But if you decrease the intensity of your workouts, plan accordingly. A more precision-based model for carbohydrate intake may work best in this instance. Eating easily digestible natural carbohydrates, like honey, 30 minutes prior to a moderate to vigorous workout can offset potential energy deficiencies created by a keto diet meal plan.

7 Health Benefits of the Keto Diet

The time that it takes for you to achieve ketosis depends on how well-adapted your body is to the ketogenic process. The most reliable way to determine whether you have entered a state of ketosis is to use a blood ketone meter, which can gauge ketone levels in your blood.

Optimal ketosis—the point at which you begin to experience the health benefits of the keto diet, such as weight loss—typically begins when blood ketone levels reach between 1.5 mmol/L and 3.0 mmol/L.

For most people, it takes 2 to 3 weeks to reach optimal ketosis. During this time, you may experience symptoms of “keto flu” as your body acclimates to this new metabolic state. Some common side effects people experience during this entry phase include:

  • Mood swings
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue
  • Intestinal discomfort

Once you reach ketosis, however, any initial unpleasantness you experienced will clear up and you will begin to reap the health benefits. Here are seven of the most common benefits associated with the keto diet.

1. Sustainable Weight Loss

The keto diet, in essence, turns your body into a fat-burning machine. As you might anticipate, this can have significant benefits when it comes to weight loss. Strong scientific evidence shows that the keto diet dramatically increases the body’s fat-burning capacity while decreasing levels of insulin, a hormone that encourages fat storage.

2. Decreased Hunger

Researchers have also found that the keto diet supports body fat loss while decreasing appetite, making it easier to stick to the meal plans you set up for yourself.

One reason for this is likely that when your body uses fat as its primary fuel source, it has round-the-clock access to weeks or months of stored energy. This eliminates the hunger attacks many experience when their blood sugar spikes and then plummets after a high-carb meal.

3. Balanced Blood Sugar Levels

Adopting a keto diet can help you gain control over your blood sugar levels. For this reason, medical practitioners may recommend the keto diet to patients with type 2 diabetes. The keto diet can not only lead to better management of this condition, but also, as studies have shown, to a reversal of the disease.

Though no randomized, controlled trials have examined whether the keto diet can help prevent or reverse pre-diabetes, its impressive effect as a treatment for full-blown type 2 diabetes along with anecdotal evidence makes a strong case for its likely success.

4. Reduced Risk of Heart Disease

Multiple studies have shown that adopting a low-carb diet, like the keto diet, can positively influence several key risk factors for the development of heart disease, including cholesterol levels. Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides consistently drop while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels remain fairly stable.

It’s also common for people who switch from, for instance, the standard American diet (aptly abbreviated to SAD), to the keto diet to see decreases in blood pressure numbers.

5. Heightened Cognitive Skills and Mental Clarity

While weight loss and improved physical health rank high among the reasons people try the keto diet, some seek it out for its beneficial impact on cognition.

When the body enters ketosis, your brain activity no longer depends on glucose stores. Instead, it runs off a steady supply of ketones. This can eliminate frustrating issues related to blood sugar swings, such as brain fog and difficulty focusing.

6. Boosted Energy and Endurance

By allowing you to access the vast amounts of energy in your body’s fat stores, the keto diet can keep your vitality high.

While stores of glucose only contain enough energy to fuel you through a few hours of physical exertion, your fat stores could theoretically last for weeks.

7. Better Digestion and Nutrient Absorption

Many find that adopting the keto diet can relieve symptoms of digestive distress associated with IBS and other conditions.

This benefit often sets in rapidly. Within days of following a keto meal plan, individuals report improvements and fewer instances of bloating, gas, and stomach cramps and pain. Consistently following a comprehensive ketogenic diet, otherwise known as the keto diet, is an effective way to lose weight and keep it off. Taking amino acids along with following a keto diet can expedite the metabolic processes responsible for ketogenic weight loss.

It generally takes 3 to 6 months to train your body to reach optimal ketosis at a fast rate.

Once you reach that milestone, you can begin to gradually re-introduce plant-based carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables into your diet. At this stage, it’s particularly important to continue to monitor your protein intake. Protein surges can cause insulin levels to rise in the blood, which can hinder ketosis.

While transitioning into ketosis, it can be beneficial to engage in high-intensity workouts, as doing so will accelerate glycogen depletion. Many find that when they are in a state of ketosis, they feel best when participating in low-impact exercise, such as jogging or speed walking, yoga, swimming, or dancing.

Using Supplements to Improve Your Keto Results

Those who commit to a keto-friendly, low-carb foods centered approach to eating long term often find that adding specific supplements can maximize the benefits of the keto diet while minimizing any less-than-pleasant side effects.

Some supplements help fill in possible deficiencies that can result when personal preferences are overlaid on top of the restrictions built into the keto diet. Others help counteract symptoms of keto flu experienced while the body adapts to a state of ketosis, or enhance athletic performance.

Here are three supplements that can enhance the positive effects linked to the keto diet and offset any unwanted ones.

1. Amino Acids

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins consist of single- or long-chain amino acids and are necessary nutrients for most cell and organ functions. Consuming measured proteins in correct proportion to nutrient fat can facilitate ketosis. Ketogenic amino acids can convert to acetyl-CoA, a precursor of ketone bodies, whereas glucogenic amino acids degrade to glucose.

Lysine and leucine function exclusively as ketogenic amino acids. Isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine function both as ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids.

Lysine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan are all considered essential amino acids—meaning the body cannot synthesize them on its own and they must be acquired through food or supplements. Leucine, for example, can be found in abundant quantities in cheese, soybeans, chicken, nuts, seeds, and seafood.

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)—leucine, isoleucine, and valine—have particular relevance for keto dieters engaged in physical training, as they can help reduce exercise-related muscle damage, muscle soreness, and fatigue during exercise. However, many studies show that the most benefit can be derived from a well-formulated essential amino acid supplement rather than individual amino acid supplements.

For more information on the best amino acids to take to complement a keto diet, check out this article.

2. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB)

Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) supplements, sometimes referred to as exogenous ketones, may be able to elevate ketone levels, among other desirable benefits.

As we’ve discussed, your body naturally produces ketone bodies through a process called ketogenesis. Some experts believe that exogenous ketones from an external source can increase your blood ketone levels, helping you reach a state of ketosis more quickly.

There’s also some evidence to show that BHB supplements can counteract the fatigue and mood swings that some experience when they start the keto diet. Once you’ve entered ketosis, studies show that these same supplements may help to enhance athletic performance, decrease recovery time between training sessions, and lower appetite levels.

Some general guidelines for a starting dosage for BHB supplements would be to take either 2 BHB oil capsules daily or 1 scoop of BHB oil powder on an empty stomach between meals with 16 ounces of water. You should limit yourself to three such doses per day.

Some individuals experience stomachaches when taking BHB supplements. If you experience digestive upset, try lowering your intake, then gradually increase to the ideal dose.

3. Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)

Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) can be an ideal tool for keto dieting. These fatty acids are used to form ketones in the liver, and supplementing with MCT oil can help you feel more satiated during the ketosis transition.

Keto-friendly coconut oil is a rich natural source of medium-chain triglycerides, although it provides a far less concentrated dose of MCTs than expressly manufactured MCT oils.

MCTs and amino acids work together synergistically. The presence of amino acids in the body supports the essential metabolic process by which the fatty acids are transformed into ketones, and a study published in the journal Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology determined that dietary fat, especially medium-chain fats, helps to regulate amino acid transport.

As researchers study these unique compounds found in healthy dietary fats, they continue to add to the long list of health benefits associated with an increased intake of MCTs, including:

  • Increased fat burning during athletic activity
  • Bolstered growth of good gut flora
  • Lowered cardiovascular risks
  • Protection against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease
  • Increased antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal activity

As with BHB supplements, MCT oil supplements, such as these softgels, should be taken with water—in this case, at least an 8-ounce glass. Only one daily dose is needed.

Consistently following a comprehensive ketogenic diet, otherwise known as the keto diet, is an effective way to lose weight and keep it off. Taking amino acids along with following a keto diet can expedite the metabolic processes responsible for ketogenic weight loss.