When Is a Nutrient an Antinutrient?

Antinutrients, like phytates, oxalates, and glucosinolates, are components of food or dietary nutrients that interfere with absorption of other nutrients. In this article, we’ll cover the latest findings on how antinutrients affect your health so you can separate fact from fiction as you continue seeing news coverage on this hot topic.

If you’re interested in optimizing your diet, you’ve likely encountered the word antinutrients before. Certain experts have raised concerns about antinutrients, components of food or dietary nutrients that interfere with the absorption of other nutrients. Different antinutrients, such as phytates, oxalates, and glucosinolates can be found in various types of food, including fruits, veggies, legumes, dairy, and meat.

At this time, the long-term impact of antinutrients on human health has yet to be fully sussed out. Research has shown that while antinutrients can cause health problems, they can also bring health benefits. The majority opinion among health authorities at this time is that the advantages of eating foods containing antinutrients outweigh the adverse effects of forgoing those foods altogether.

Read on to learn more about antinutrients and how they affect your health so you can separate fact from fiction as you continue seeing news coverage on this hot topic.

What Are Antinutrients?

The answer to the question of what antinutrients are can be found in the name itself: while the term nutrients describes substances that provide the raw materials plants and animals (humans included) need to thrive, antinutrients prevent them from absorbing and utilizing those substances. In short, they block the absorption of nutrients. Antinutrients occur naturally in a variety of both plant-based and animal-based foods.

The purpose of those found in plants, like lectins, is to prevent bacterial infections and protect against consumption by predators, as an article published in Plant Physiology outlines. To illustrate that idea, consider the case of the nightshade family of vegetables, which includes potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants. All nightshade vegetables contain solanine and chaconine, antinutrients intended to deter animals and humans alike from consuming them as they can make you sick when ingested in large doses.

A common health concern raised by those worried about antinutrient consumption is that ingesting high amounts can result in nutrient deficiencies, particularly for individuals adhering to diets that classify certain foods as off-limits, particularly vegan or vegetarian diets organized around legumes and grains. Another worry is that they may increase intestinal permeability, resulting in a health condition referred to as leaky gut.

Fact-Checking Concerns About 7 Antinutrients

As described above, antinutrients impede the body’s ability to absorb essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and so on. While this clearly has the potential to be problematic, the evidence so far indicates that it’s unlikely to cause issues in the absence of overall malnutrition or dietary imbalances. Furthermore, studies show that in certain circumstances, antinutrients can actually enhance a person’s health—for instance, tannins found in tea can decrease cancer risk and phytic acid can lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

In the sections below, we’ll delve into the details of common concerns raised about seven of the most significant antinutrient groups:

  1. Lectins
  2. Phytates
  3. Oxalates
  4. Tannins and other flavonoids
  5. Glucosinolates
  6. Enzyme inhibitors
  7. Saponins

1. Lectins

Lectins can be found in all plants but in particularly high concentrations in seeds, legumes (most notably kidney beans), and whole grains as they tend to cluster in the parts of seeds that go on to become leaves after sprouting occurs.

In the popular consciousness, lectins have entered into the same category as gluten: a poorly understood substance widely believed to be, somehow, bad.

Going “lectin-free,” in the way you might go gluten-free, is posited as a way to prevent leaky gut syndrome. The theory is that when you eat foods that contain high amounts of lectin, the lectin proteins bind to cells in the walls of the digestive tract where they then create minute punctures that allow the contents of the gut to leak into the bloodstream. In high amounts, lectins may also prevent the proper absorption of certain nutrients, including calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc.

According to a literature review published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, some lectins do have “deleterious nutritional effects.” The review also notes that dietary exposure to lectins appears to be widespread. However, the authors could not decisively determine whether lectins caused noticeable health issues.

A separate article states that due to the “ubiquitous” presence of lectins in plants, we all ingest them daily in “appreciable amounts”—unless, of course, you’re taking steps to avoid them. The article goes on to explain that it is the ability of lectins to remain intact in the digestive tract that allows them to cause damage to its lining, though the effects it notes do not include the development of leaky gut, but rather:

  • Loss of gut epithelial cells
  • Damage to the membranes of the epithelium
  • Impaired digestion and absorption of nutrients
  • Disruption to balance of bacterial flora and immune state of the gut

Before you begin to panic about the logistical challenges of avoiding lectins, remember that researchers have yet to find conclusive evidence that consuming lectin-containing foods produces damage significant enough to impact the well-being of individuals who are otherwise in good health.

Phytates

Also called phytic acid, these antinutrients can be found in many of the same foods as lectins—think legumes such as lentils, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and pseudocereals like quinoa. Their purpose for the foods that contain them is to provide the phosphorous necessary for the growing plant.

Studies show that phytates interfere with the absorption of certain minerals and trace elements, including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc, by binding to those micronutrients during digestion.

However, an article published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research notes that dietary phytates also have beneficial effects such as decreasing the likelihood of kidney stone formation and keeping blood sugar and blood lipid levels in the healthy range. The authors note, too, that phytates appear to have antioxidant and possibly anticancerogenic properties.

So, it seems that the phytate content of a food should certainly not be a cause for concern and may even be a boon to your health.

Oxalates

Oxalates, or oxalic acid, can be commonly found in nuts and seeds as well as in leafy greens, fruits, vegetables (particularly rhubarb), and cocoa. Oxalates bind to minerals to form calcium oxalate or iron oxalate. This makes it much more challenging for the body to absorb those minerals.

A review published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition compared the absorbability of calcium from spinach, which contains oxalates, to that of calcium from milk, which does not, and found that the absorption from milk was always higher. The mean absorption for milk was 27.6% while spinach achieved a mere 5.1%.

In some instances, oxalates have also been linked to an elevated risk of kidney stone formation, though thanks to the high nutritional value of oxalate-containing foods, physicians no longer universally recommend low-oxalate diets to those with kidney stones. In other words, there’s no need to try to avoid oxalate-rich foods due to this possible side effect. Most people will harm their health more by avoiding these healthful foods than by ingesting the oxalates they contain.

Tannins and Other Flavonoids

You may be confused to see flavonoids on this list, as this group of naturally occurring polyphenols (which include tannins) have often been discussed as nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant properties. However, these compounds, like the other antinutrients, chelate or bind with minerals such as iron and zinc and reduce the absorption of these nutrients.

For instance, the tannins found in tea, coffee, fruit skins, and legumes have been linked to decreases in iron absorption. Yet they have also been shown to have anticarcinogenic activity and to inhibit the growth of fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

One way to think about tannins, as an article published in Trends in Food Science and Technology aptly put it, is as “a double-edged sword.” It appears, however, that consuming small quantities of tannins will allow you to access their benefits, while larger amounts are needed before the threshold for adverse effects is crossed.

Glucosinolates

These antinutrients are found in high amounts in cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage. Like tannins and the rest of the flavonoid family, you may be more familiar with glucosinolates as a desirable phytonutrient.

Yet the same compounds renowned for their ability to help prevent cancer also impede iodine absorption, which can lead to an iodine deficiency and impaired thyroid function. Individuals whose diets contain insufficient amounts of iodine or who have hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are most at risk for this issue.

There’s also some indication of an association between a greater intake of glucosinolates and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies so far, such as this one from 2018, have all been population-based, making it too early to say whether there’s a causal relationship at work.

Enzyme Inhibitors

This category of antinutrients includes protease, amylase, and lipase inhibitors, all of which impact the body’s ability to digest and absorb macronutrients. They can be found in a wide swathe of the plant kingdom, including legumes, seeds, and whole grains.

A protease is an enzyme (the -ase ending in chemistry denotes an enzyme) that helps break down proteins, amylase is an enzyme that breaks down certain carbohydrates, and lipase is an enzyme that breaks down lipids (fats). If the enzyme is “inhibited,” it is prevented from breaking down the macronutrient and making it available for absorption. Therefore, protease inhibitors make the body less able to digest protein, amylase inhibitors do the same for carbohydrates, and lipase inhibitors do so for fat.

Food sources of protease inhibitors include beans and other legumes, cucumbers, radishes, broccoli, spinach, potatoes, and egg whites, which contain a trypsin inhibitor along with avidin, which interferes with biotin absorption.

Interestingly, both amylase and amylase inhibitors are touted as having health benefits. Natural dietary sources of amylase include raw fruits and vegetables, along with sprouted seeds, nuts, legumes and whole grains. Amylase inhibitors are found in Garcinia cambogia, guar, inulin, Rosmarinic acid, and other plant foods.

Lipase inhibitors, as already noted, interfere with the enzymes we use to process fats. Lipase inhibitors do not discriminate between fats, meaning absorption of good fats like omega-3 can be compromised. However, they can also be beneficial in that they protect the body from absorbing harmful fats. For that reason, the FDA approved a prescription lipase inhibitor called Orlistat that can increase weight-loss results by allowing fats to pass through your system unprocessed. Orlistat can also beneficially lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, return blood pressure levels to the healthy range, and regulate fasting glucose and insulin concentrations.

Saponins

Saponins are perhaps best known for their ability to produce soapy foam when shaken with water. They can be found in a range of legumes and whole grains and can interfere with normal nutrient absorption. Per an article published in the International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, they may also inhibit the actions of various digestive enzymes in the same manner as the substances discussed in the preceding section, thereby decreasing protein digestibility.

However, that same article notes that there’s evidence saponins lower cholesterol. An article published in the Journal of Medicinal Food went even further, describing saponins as “health-promoting components” and praising them for their ability to decrease your risk of cancer.

Other Antinutrients You May Encounter

In addition to the seven antinutrients discussed above, you may see references to other antinutrients. Keep in mind that what findings exist about their impact on human health likely show the same complicated and contradictory results. With that said, here are several other antinutrients as well as some food sources for each:

  • Allicin and mustard oil: Alliums like chives, leeks, onions, scallions, shallots, and garlic
  • Alpha-amylase inhibitors: Whole grains, legumes, the skins of various nuts, and the leaves of the stevia plant
  • Calcitriol, solanine, nicotine: Nightshade vegetables like eggplant, peppers, tomatoes as well as goji berries
  • Goitrogens: Cruciferous vegetables, soybeans, and peanuts
  • Oligosaccharides: Wheat, legumes, asparagus, and alliums
  • Salicylates: Berries and other fruits like apricots as well as some herbs and spices including cayenne, ginger, and turmeric
  • Uric acid: Primarily animal-based foods like meat (particularly organ meat), eggs, and dairy as well as legumes and some vegetables

14 Common Antinutrients and the Foods You'll Find Them In

How Antinutrients Affect Your Health

It’s challenging to speak generally about the health effects of antinutrients since they depend on an individual’s metabolism, how the food is cooked and prepared, and the presence of any food sensitivities, nutrient deficiencies, or health conditions.

Keep in mind, too, that many dietary substances can act as antinutrients under certain circumstances.  For example, alcohol, when consumed in excess, interferes with the bioavailability of zinc and the B vitamins.

Also, the antinutrient only impairs the absorption of nutrients that are co-ingested in the meal. For example, a phytate-rich snack of raw almonds won’t affect the absorption of iron from a steak consumed later in the day.

There are many other strategies to “neutralize” the antinutrients found in foods. Many culinary techniques such as soaking, fermenting, and sprouting (and, of course, cooking) of beans and seeds are common approaches that increase the palatability and nutrient availability.

In a balanced, omnivorous diet, antinutrients present no problem, and the benefits they confer, such as antioxidant properties and removal of toxic metals, far outweigh any impact on mineral balance.

Vegetarian or vegan diets, on the other hand, may involve the combination of low intake of iron, zinc, and calcium and a high consumption of grains that contain phytates and other antinutrients. The result of this combination can be dietary deficiencies in minerals that, over time, lead to a deficiency. These mineral imbalances result in impaired immune function, anemia, and poor bone health, among other symptoms.

That said, there’s some indication, like this study done in 2012, that the bodies of individuals adhering to such diets may adapt over time to the continued presence of antinutrients by becoming more efficient at metabolizing minerals such as iron and zinc.

Individuals with an elevated risk of developing conditions linked to mineral deficiencies, such as osteoporosis or anemia with iron deficiency may wish to consult a dietitian or nutritionist to develop an eating approach designed to improve mineral absorption. Such a strategy might be to reduce antinutrients, but that’s certainly not the only method. You might instead strategically time intake of foods with high antinutrient content, such as tea, to avoid impeding mineral absorption, or plan to take a high-quality calcium supplement after consuming a legume dish high in phytates.

It’s also worth noting that antinutrients can largely be minimized by food processing and by genetic engineering. In countries with less industrialized agricultural systems, antinutrients have presented nutritional problems, but in the United States, most diets contain micronutrients in amounts well above the minimal requirement.

Interestingly, the tendency to put more and more focus on the benefits of unprocessed fruit, vegetables and grains, increases the likelihood that antinutrients could undermine a well-intended dietary plan.

As established in the last section, antinutrients often have health benefits of their own. While it’s true that phytates interfere with calcium absorption, they also manage the body’s rate of digestion, forestalling blood sugar spikes. Because antinutrients can be quite good for you, most experts do not recommend that you avoid consuming them entirely.  As long as you eat foods with a high antinutrient content in the context of a nutritious, varied diet, there’s very little risk involved.

Conclusion

So, should you worry about  antinutrients? The simple answer is that they don’t need to be a problem if care is taken in preparing foods and timing the ingestion of raw foods and snacks apart from mineral-dense meals or dietary supplements. Certain foods will likely contain some antinutrients no matter how you process and prepare them, however, the nutrients found in those foods will typically have a more pronounced effect than the antinutrients. By eating a wide assortment of foods each day, and taking care not to eat meals centered on a large portion of a food source of antinutrients, you should be able to offset any potential adverse effects of antinutrients.

Recognizing Cachexia: Unintended Weight Loss, Falling Energy Levels, Temporal Wasting and Other Signs to Look For

Treating cachexia, a frequently irreversible side effect of many major illnesses, requires a separate, multilevel approach. This is, in part, because diagnosing it can be quite tricky, as symptoms such as temporal wasting overlap with those of the underlying conditions. In addition to lifestyle-related shifts such as eating small, frequent meals, supplementing with amino acids has been shown to slow the rate of muscle mass loss as well as the fatigue caused by cachexia.

One way to think about cachexia is as the last illness. This metabolic disorder causes muscle wasting and involuntary, extreme weight loss, as well as temporal wasting. Cachexia occurs in the final states of almost every serious disease, including cancer, heart disease, HIV, and multiple sclerosis.

According to experts, approximately 9 million people around the world have cachexia. A 2016 estimate placed the number of cachexia diagnoses among individuals admitted to hospitals in the United States at 160,000 per year. Despite the staggering number of individuals affected by cachexia, doctors have historically focused on treating the underlying disease, rather than cachexia itself.

However, as we entered the twenty-tens, scientists began to examine cachexia as not just a symptom, but a condition that could itself be treated. Early studies showed that inflammation and metabolic imbalances drive cachexia, pointing the way to potential treatment approaches.

One of the challenges in treating cachexia is that it can be challenging to diagnose, particularly in the early stages when interventions are most likely to result in increased quality of life.

In this article, we’ll cover what causes cachexia, how to recognize temporal wasting and other symptoms of cachexia, and available treatments for cachexia such as targeted amino acid supplementation.

What Causes Cachexia?

Cachexia is a complex condition with no single cause. The term comes from the Greek words “kakos,” meaning bad, and “hexis,” meaning condition—and indeed, those with cachexia are in overall bad condition. This makes it challenging not only to tease out the factors that cause cachexia, but also to define the condition clinically. Though Hippocrates is widely acknowledged as the first to describe cachexia, a formal medical definition—which includes the loss of 5% or more of a person’s bodyweight over the course of a year as well as declining muscle strength—was not developed until 2006.

Scientists do know that in addition to altered levels of key bioactive substances, a primary force behind the development of cachexia is increased muscle protein breakdown which, in conjunction with decreased muscle protein synthesis, results in muscle atrophy, or muscle loss.

Other processes known to contribute to cachexia include systemic inflammation and elevated energy expenditure.

A number of factors contribute to cachexia, including the levels of these substances, the conditions that cause them, and the reaction they provoke from the body.

Who’s at Risk of Developing Cachexia?

As touched on in the introduction, cachexia commonly develops during the last stages of serious diseases. That means individuals with the following conditions are all at risk of developing cachexia as their diseases progress:

If you or a loved one has one of the conditions listed above, consider having a conversation with your doctor about preventative steps you can take to avoid cachexia and safeguard your quality of life.

9 Conditions That Put You at Risk of Developing Cachexia

Recognizing Temporal Wasting, Unintended Weight Loss, and Other Symptoms of Cachexia

Many of the symptoms of cachexia overlap with the symptoms of other conditions, including the very conditions that cause cachexia to develop. This can make it difficult to differentiate between true cachexia and other issues.

Some telltale indicators of cachexia include:

  • Muscle wasting: The core symptom of cachexia is muscle wasting. It’s important to note, however, that particularly in the early stages, individuals may be experiencing ongoing muscle loss without visibly appearing malnourished. In individuals who are overweight, this can make it even more unlikely that doctors will spot cachexia.
  • Unintentional weight loss: This refers to weight loss without conscious intent, and with the consumption of an adequate number of calories to maintain body weight or even a high enough caloric intake to result in weight gain under normal circumstances.
  • Loss of appetite: Known clinically as anorexia (and not to be confused with anorexia as an eating disorder), the loss of appetite experienced by those with cachexia is pronounced and consistent. They cease to find food appealing and lose the desire to eat it.
  • Decreased functional ability: Cachexia often results in fatigue, low energy levels, and malaise, which can make it difficult for a person to carry out daily activities. They may find even simple tasks such as brushing their teeth to be exhausting.
  • Edema: Cachexia causes protein levels in the blood to decrease, which in turn causes excess fluid to accumulate in the tissues of the body. As it builds up, it causes swelling.
  • Temporal wasting: The wasting of the temporal muscles and subcutaneous fat in the temporal region occurs with serious nutritional deficiencies and severe catabolism (meaning when muscle protein breakdown massively outpaces muscle protein synthesis).

6 Symptoms of Cachexia

Why Is It Challenging to Diagnose Cachexia?

Many of the symptoms of cachexia overlap with the symptoms of other conditions, including the very conditions that cause cachexia to develop. This can make it difficult to differentiate between true cachexia and other issues.

To further complicate matters, doctors don’t agree on the threshold at which muscle wasting becomes extensive enough to be considered cachexia. The definition of cachexia settled upon in 2008—”a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass”—largely hinges on presence of muscle loss either in the absence of, or that outpaces, fat loss.

Even mild muscle loss, which commonly accompanies the aging process, produces some feelings of increased weakness and fatigue. It can also make it more difficult for individuals to carry out the activities of daily life.

Most experts concur that the best approach for determining when muscle wasting has become significant enough to constitute cachexia involves quantifying:

  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Change to muscle strength
  • Degree of decrease to muscle tone

In the early 2010s, some researchers proposed that imaging techniques like MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) could be valuable tools for diagnosing cachexia.

At this time, doctors continue to use a variety of criteria for diagnosing cachexia. The most common lists the following diagnostic points:

  • Inadvertent loss of over 5% of overall body weight in a span of 6 to 12 months
  • Body mass index (BMI) of under 20 for individuals younger than 65 and under 22 for individuals age 65 and older
  • Less than 10% of body mass accounted for by body fat

The Importance of Early Recognition

Because loss of muscle strength and muscle mass often occur slowly and in tandem with chronic diseases and/or the aging process, cachexia diagnoses tend to happen once widespread muscle wasting has transpired. This eliminates the best window of opportunity for halting the progression of cachexia and securing an improved long-term quality of life.

Unfortunately, the patients under the closest medical observation often fare the worst, as hospitalization can instigate or exacerbate malnourishment, which in turn furthers the progression of cachexia. When a patient’s nutrient intake declines, longer hospital stays and worse outcomes tend to follow.

Conventional medical treatment plans are not designed to encourage the recognition of early signs of muscle wasting. The more pronounced the wasting becomes, the lower the efficacy rate for interventions.

In an effort to combat this, researchers developed guidelines for a condition termed “pre-cachexia,” which are as follows:

  • Presence of an underlying chronic disease
  • Unintentional weight loss less than or equal to 5% of typical body weight during the last 6 months
  • Systemic inflammation
  • Loss of appetite and related symptoms

Hopefully, the establishment of these guidelines will lead to greater recognition of early signs of muscle wasting. Even minor changes to body mass or appetite among those with chronic diseases can be indicators that something has gone awry, and should, therefore, be taken seriously. The sooner these symptoms are noted and addressed, the better the treatment results will be.

Diagnostic Criteria for Pre-Cachexia and Cachexia

Complications Associated with Cachexia

As cachexia progresses, it can seriously impact a person’s overall health. Muscle wasting, in particular, can significantly decrease longevity. According to a 2017 study, cachexia correlates strongly with survival and has been found to contribute to 20% of cancer fatalities.

In general, complications associated with cachexia include:

  • Impaired quality of life
  • Inability to live independently
  • Compromised immunity
  • Exacerbated symptoms of underlying disease
  • Shortened lifespan

How to Treat Cachexia

Because so many separate factors coalesce to cause cachexia, treatment typically involves multiple types of therapy. While it can be tempting to believe that simply encouraging a person to eat more, or to change the foods they eat, will halt the loss of body mass caused by cachexia, that will not produce the desired results.

According to doctors, dietitians, and other experts, the following steps can be valuable parts of a cachexia treatment plan.

  • Adopt an eating approach centered on small, frequent meals. While an increased caloric intake alone will not cure cachexia, it’s vital that individuals with cachexia consume as many nutrient-dense calories as they can tolerate. Most find it preferable to eat small portions of high-calorie meals throughout the day rather than three larger meals. It can also be helpful to add nutritional supplement drinks as between-meal snacks.
  • Emphasize the social elements of eating. Even if eating itself holds little attraction, individuals with cachexia can still draw enjoyment from gathering together to eat a meal. Encouraging a person with cachexia to focus on mealtime socialization can help recalibrate the relationship to food.
  • Educate the emotional support system. As cachexia and the underlying diseases associated with it progress, patients may entirely lose the desire to eat. This can be upsetting for family and friends, who may feel strong urges to compel them to eat. It’s important to understand that eating will not halt muscle wasting and weight loss. When patients reach this stage, prioritize their overall quality of life rather than caloric intake.
  • Try appetite stimulant medications. Certain drugs—for example, dronabinol, megestrol, and glucocorticoids—can stimulate the appetite. Again, keep in mind that eating more will not change the progression of the disease. However, it can be beneficial in that patients feel more integrated into familial and social interactions, which in turn improves mental health.
  • Engage in light exercise. If a person has the energy to do so, some believe that light exercise can help build muscle mass. That said, this hypothesis has yet to be fully substantiated.

Incorporating Amino Acids into a Cachexia Treatment Plan

Researchers have found that certain nutritional interventions can help to both treat and prevent muscle wasting. Given the paramount importance of amino acids for muscle growth, it should come as no surprise that strong evidence indicates that whey protein, as well as glutamine, arginine, and leucine, can help individuals with cachexia maintain and even increase their muscle mass.

Studies support the use of whey protein to build muscle. Whey, considered to have one of the best amino acid profiles of any natural protein, provides a wealth of amino acids that play active roles in muscle synthesis, including all three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple studies have shown that supplementing with whey protein can result in increased protein synthesis. Furthermore, the increases associated with the use of whey protein are greater than those linked to the use of casein or soy. That said, it’s not uncommon for these studies to have participants enroll in an exercise program, making it somewhat unclear whether the muscle mass increases stem from the whey protein, the exercise program, or the combination of the two.

Interestingly, carnitine, an amino acid derivative, can not only stimulate muscle protein synthesis but also increase energy production, thereby alleviating the ill effects of cachexia on two levels. Several studies have found that cancer patients with cachexia tend to have low levels of carnitine, and that supplementing with 2 to 6 grams of carnitine can help reduce fatigue and increase lean body mass.

A 2006 study conducted by an Italian research team found that taking 2 grams of L-carnitine 3 times each day for a month led to an average muscle mass gain of 4.4 pounds, significantly decreased fatigue, and markedly improved quality of life. Other studies done with cancer patients also found that supplementing with carnitine led to increased muscle mass and decreased fatigue.

As you may be aware, amino acids work in concert to orchestrate myriad essential physiological functions, including protein synthesis. Thus, while certain amino acids have been shown to be uniquely beneficial for the treatment of cachexia, it appears that supplementing with well-balanced blends of multiple amino acids produces better results than supplementing with a single amino acid.

For instance, the use of leucine in combination with glutamine and arginine can bring about lean muscle mass gains in individuals with muscle wasting. A study published in The Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition showed that a mixture of leucine, glutamine, and arginine given in two divided doses each day led to an average weight gain of 5.6 pounds of lean muscle mass compared to an average weight loss of 1.5 pounds of lean mass for those taking the placebo. Study participants, all of whom had HIV and documented weight loss of at least 5% of body mass over the previous 3 months, were randomly assigned to receive the amino acid mixture or the placebo. The study authors tracked their body weights, lean body mass, and fat mass using air displacement plethysmography and computerized tomography (CT). After 8 weeks, the researchers found that supplementing with the amino acid blend could “markedly alter the course of lean tissue loss” as well as improve immune status.

Studies done with cancer patients and other populations found similar results in terms of muscle mass gains.

How to Treat Cachexia

Research supports the idea that the use of amino acids to treat cachexia should include a well-formulated blend of essential amino acids. This ensures the body has all the raw materials necessary to carry out muscle protein synthesis at the highest rate possible. Only a small amount of amino acids—say, a 3-gram dose—is needed to bring about this effect.

Conclusion

Cachexia, a frequently irreversible side effect of many major illnesses, causes severe muscle wasting. The accompanying rapid loss of muscle mass can undermine a person’s overall health and even shorten their lifespan. Diagnosing cachexia is quite tricky, as symptoms such as temporal wasting overlap with those of the underlying conditions associated with it. Furthermore, it often accompanies the end stage of those diseases.

Cachexia is complex condition, and though it is intimately intertwined with the progression of the underlying disease, treating it requires a separate, multilevel approach. In addition to lifestyle-related shifts such as eating small, frequent meals, supplementing with amino acids has been shown to slow the rate of muscle mass loss as well as the fatigue caused by cachexia.

The Reverse-Aging Diet: Is Autophagy the Key to Staying Young?

By using autophagy fasting techniques and nutritionally superior foods, you can reverse certain aspects of aging and recover your rightful vitality. Here’s what you need to know about the reverse-aging diet.

The reverse-aging diet is also known as “eating for autophagy,” but what does that mean for you? Autophagy is a biological process that allows the body to recycle aging or dying cells to synthesize new and better ones. It’s not exactly like a keto or paleo diet where you can just know what not to eat and carry on—there’s a timing aspect to autophagic eating, as well as specific foods that have their own anti-aging strengths. We’ll cover both aspects of the reverse-aging diet here.

What Is Autophagy and How Does It Reverse Aging?

The body’s autophagy process was discovered in the 1950s and ’60s accidentally by Christian de Duve, a Belgian scientist who was studying insulin at the time. He named the process after the Greek words for “self” (auto) and “eating” (phagy), because in a sense that is what it entails: the body sends cells around to cannibalize the useful parts of dying cells, or to eat up the garbage byproduct of normal cell functioning, and uses those pieces to repair or replace dying cells with stronger cells. It’s like a molecular version of recycling and up-cycling material that would otherwise be clogging up the streets.

Scientific understanding of autophagy didn’t advance again until the 1970s and ’80s, when another Nobel prize-winning scientist, Yoshinori Ohsumi, discovered the genes that regulate the autophagic response. It was ultimately determined that, just as with all the other processes in the body, autophagy starts to decline with age. Autophagy on decline is sort of like having a broken garbage disposal and leaving leftover food bits in your sink: eventually this will gum up the works.

And yet, just as it’s possible to get your garbage and recycling habits back in working order, it’s also possible to trigger autophagy even as you age and the process naturally slows. By using diet to manipulate a “stress response” in the body, you can essentially assign cleaning days to your cells, the same way you might when creating a chore chart for a busy family: some days are for cleaning and some days are for more thoroughly enjoying life in a clean house.

Long story short, by using intermittent fasting practices and eating key nutritional foods, you can regularly bring autophagy out of a sluggish maintenance mode and make sure the cellular garbage in your body doesn’t overwhelm healthy functioning and lead to symptoms of aging.

Autophagy Fasting: How Does It Work?

Autophagy is actually part of some diets like keto and Atkins, diets that carefully put the body into a small nutritional crisis to manipulate healthy results. By inhibiting carbohydrate intake for example, the body becomes alarmed enough to start burning fat stores for energy. Usually the body guards these fat stores like piles of emergency gold in case of famine, but in a modern, First World context, famine is way less of a threat, while obesity contributes to more and more preventable deaths each year.

If you want to fast in a way that triggers autophagic metabolism and slows down the aging process, follow these basic steps:

  • Eat all of your meals within an 8-hour window. You still need your essential nutrients, but you want your body to spend some energy cleaning up rather than digesting and functioning all the time. For the best foods to eat for autophagy, read on to the next section.
  • Fast between 16 and 28 hours intermittently. Periods of nutrient deprivation trigger autophagy. The reason intermittent fasting works is that it triggers the sort of secondary metabolisms we evolved to survive in harsh climates, but it does so in small windows of time without actually starving us.
  • Sustain yourself and your energy with exogenous ketones. While fasting, water, tea, and black coffee are acceptable to consume. If you choose to add MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides from coconut oil) to your drink, your body will have just enough energy to function and feel satiated without interrupting your fasting goals for weight loss or cellular clean-up.

Autophagy is also triggered by vigorous exercise routines, like HIIT workouts (high-intensity interval training), which, much like intermittent fasting, utilize small windows of high stress to elicit the biological responses we need to stay young and healthy. Modern life is often too safe and sedentary, and our survival mechanisms get weak from lack of use. Autophagy reminds our bodies that each day is still a matter of life and death.

What Is Autophagy and How Does It Reverse Aging

The Reverse-Aging Diet: Which Foods Keep the Body Young?

You’ll want to start by reducing (not eliminating) carbs. Eating more low carb starts inching your body towards ketosis, with the beneficial side effect of losing body fat and weight. In addition to lowering carb intake, you’ll want to consume nutrient-dense foods with compounds that contribute directly to the body’s anti-aging efforts.

Green Tea and Matcha Powder

Green tea has become nearly synonymous with longevity, so much so that statistically the more green tea you consume regularly, the longer you live. This is why it’s a staple in almost every anti-aging diet. Green tea and matcha powder (ground green tea leaves) contain polyphenols that help reduce the inflammation caused by free radical toxins. And catechins in green tea can help prevent the effects on sun damage and the appearance of fine lines when used topically in skincare products.

Kale and Leafy Greens

Cruciferous vegetables and leafy greens are rightly considered superfoods. Kale, broccoli and broccoli greens, spinach, Brussels sprouts—all of these lean greens contain hefty amounts of vitamin K, lutein, fiber, and phytochemicals that help reduce the risk of cancer and guard against the oxidative damage of free radicals. Their vitamin A content contributes to healthy, youthful skin and wound repair, while their vitamin C content serves as a precursor to collagen and new skin cell production. Plus, vitamin C acts as an antioxidant so powerful it helps prevent cold and flu infections. The vitamins and minerals in leafy greens are some of the best anti-aging nutrients to be found.

Walnuts and Almonds

Most nuts contain valuable amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and plant-based protein, but that isn’t the end of their value as anti-aging food. Walnuts in particular may extend life for up to 3 years, possibly by reducing the risk factors for cancer and heart disease. And almonds are full of vitamins A, B, and E, healthy fats, and antioxidants that belong in every healthy diet to help reduce inflammation from the skin to within.

Seeds

Just about any seed that isn’t poisonous is good for you, from chia to sunflower to flaxseeds. Ask any dietitian or nutritionist if you’re eating enough seeds, and the answer will likely be a resounding “no!” Most of us in the modern world don’t consume seeds nearly as much as we’re evolved to. In fact, we have intentionally engineered seedless foods like watermelon and bananas just to avoid what we should be consuming regularly.

Chia seeds are sources of water-soluble fiber that swells with liquid and helps slow down digestion and keep blood sugar levels from spiking. They are anti-inflammatory, full of omega-3s, and contain all nine essential amino acids necessary for new muscle growth at all stages of life.

These features can be found in flaxseeds as well, which have anti-aging nutrients for your skin and flavonoids known to help lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, improving the ratio between “good” HDL levels and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. If you enjoy a good trail mix with sunflower seeds, you’re also fortifying your body with vitamin E, an antioxidant that can help protect against the sun’s UV rays.

Oily, Fatty Fish

Eating the proper ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids is necessary for optimal health. While both fatty acids are essential, the standard Western diet overemphasizes omega-6 fatty foods (they’re in vegetable oils, which infiltrate our foods as additives), and downplays omega-3s, which are found in abundance in oily fish like salmon, sardines, and mackerel.

Omega-3 fatty acids help lower inflammation, and subsequently rates of dementia, heart disease, and arthritis. Salmon is abundant in astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant that defends against aging. And heart-healthy sardines can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Sardines have the added advantage of being on the bottom of the food chain, meaning they are less likely to contain toxins they themselves have consumed (as may be the case with larger fish, which have higher mercury levels).

Access to fresh fish is not always easy to come by or affordable for those who live far inland. Luckily a fish oil supplement is easy to find and can help improve your joint health as well.

Fermented Foods

Fermented veggies like kimchi and sauerkraut along with fermented dairy products like kefir and Greek yogurt carry healthy probiotic bacteria. While prebiotic foods contain fiber for your existing good gut bacteria to digest, probiotic foods introduce new live cultures of beneficial gut bacteria to support healthy digestion, detox efforts, and immune system functioning.

Sweet Potatoes

Don’t just pull out sweet potatoes for your fall menu. These spuds are some of the healthiest carbs around. As we pointed out at the top of this list, while it’s good to lower your intake of carbs (and the fast sugars that come with them), it’s not recommended to eliminate carbs entirely. Carbohydrates in fruits, starchy veggies, and foods like sweet potatoes can provide many beneficial nutrients. Particularly the skin of sweet potatoes contains concentrations of the anti-cancer compound anthocyanin, another valuable asset to staying young and healthy.

Red Wine and Dark Chocolate

Treats like red wine and dark chocolate contain useful nutrients too, specifically resveratrol, an anti-aging antioxidant. Consumed in moderation, the nutrients in the grapes that make red wine and the cacao nibs that make up the majority of dark chocolate provide protection against the age-accelerating damage of free radicals.

Mushrooms

It’s strange but true: while mushrooms are grown in dampness and dark, if you place them in sunlight after harvesting, they soak up vitamin D from the sun just like human skin does. In fact, they soak up so much that 3.5 ounces of mushrooms can provide you 130-450 IUs of vitamin D you need, so you don’t have to spend so much time in the sun or suffer the signs of aging that can come from sun damage.

Dark Berries and Fruits

Raspberries, blueberries, and pomegranates have deep coloring in common, as well as certain antioxidant concentrations that can greatly benefit your health. Pomegranates have enjoyed a recent hey-day as a superfood, but dark berries like blue and blackberries bring the same level of nutrition to every smoothie, yogurt, or dessert that includes them. These fruits’ concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the antioxidant anthocyanin all work to help prevent chronic conditions from gaining a foothold. They also help increase collagen production for more supple, youthful skin.

Avocados

Avocados are one of the most well-known and versatile healthy fats in a low-carb dieter’s kitchen. Delicious and creamy, they can be eaten as a veggie dip, utilized as a healthy spread, and turned into smoothies and dairy-free ice creams, all while providing you with vitamin A that protects your skin cells and omega-3 fatty acids that help your heart.

Carrots

Famous for improving eye health thanks to their beta-carotene content, carrots do even more to help preserve your youth and vitality. One study found a correlation between carotenoid consumption and romantic appeal and attraction. And if it’s health effects you’re after, the vitamin A in carrots protects your skin from viruses, bacteria, and the potential ravages of aging.

Turmeric

Speaking of brilliantly orange foods, turmeric and its active compound curcumin are famous natural remedies for inflammation, helping to ameliorate significant inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Time and time again, in study after study, turmeric exhibits proven pain-relieving attributes and anti-inflammatory capabilities. So if you’re looking to reverse aging with diet, you definitely want to pepper turmeric into your food routine. Add a dash of black pepper to increase bioavailability!

Tomatoes

The tomato is a fruit used in culinary capacities as a vegetable, but no matter how you slice it, the lycopene content inside tomatoes provides valuable disease resistance, specifically against osteoporosis, which affects 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50. Along with the health benefits of lycopene, tomatoes provide B vitamins like niacin and folate, vitamin C, and vitamin K. Here’s a pro-tip for eating: add a little olive oil to help increase the nutrient absorption in your body.

Beets

Last but not least, maybe it’s appropriate that beets have the approximate shape of a heart, because the nitrates they contain help improve arterial health and blood pressure, as well as help reduce inflammation like so many other anti-aging foods on this list. The nitric oxide content also helps protect your kidneys, and the rich color of beets makes for a beautiful presentation whether in a smoothie or on your plate.

Aging Can Be Reversed

While you can’t turn back time, you can reverse the symptoms of aging that come from the slow-down of processes like autophagy. With the right supplies in your diet and an active lifestyle, you can easily be in better shape at 60 than you were at 30, when, in the brazenness of youth, many people don’t take proper care of themselves. Damage done by poor diets or unhealthy lifestyles can be reversed, and the more you know about how to best strengthen your body, the better prepared you are to improve with age.

The Truth Behind the Apple Cider Vinegar Fatty Liver Detox, Plus Science-Based Advice on Improving Liver Health

Advocates claim that conducting a cleanse with apple cider vinegar helps to flush toxins from the body, regulate blood sugar levels, and encourage healthy weight loss, all of which can improve liver health. However, there’s little scientific support for these claims. Read on for clear, evidence-based information about fatty liver disease, why some people believe apple cider vinegar can effectively treat this condition, and what steps to take to protect and improve your liver health.

Given that pharmaceutical companies have yet to devise a drug to treat fatty liver disease, it’s hardly surprising how much interest there is in natural remedies for this condition. One popular example of this type of home remedy is the apple cider vinegar fatty liver detox. Advocates claim that conducting a cleanse with apple cider vinegar helps to flush toxins from the body, regulate blood sugar levels, and encourage healthy weight loss, all of which can improve liver health. However, there’s little scientific support for these claims.

Read on for clear, evidence-based information about fatty liver disease, why some people believe apple cider vinegar can effectively treat this condition, and what steps to take to protect and improve your liver health.

What Is Fatty Liver Disease?

Before describing fatty liver disease, let’s establish what normal, healthy liver function looks like. The liver, the largest of the internal organs, carries out a host of absolutely vital functions, such as:

  • Cleansing toxins from the bloodstream
  • Metabolizing nutrients
  • Processing lipids and amino acids

When you consume foods that contain protein, your liver uses enzymes (specifically, deaminases and transaminases) to convert the amino acids your body absorbs from the protein into the most bioavailable, utilizable forms. The liver also converts excess carbohydrates into fatty acids and other substances that the body can use as energy sources or store as fat to be used at a later date. A small percentage of those fat molecules get stored in the liver itself.

Factors such as chronic alcohol abuse, long-term drug use, nutritional deficiencies, and metabolic disorders can all interfere with your liver’s ability to fulfill its many essential functions. One of the ways this manifests is that the liver begins to increase the amount of fat stored in its cells. At the moment the amount of fat stored in the liver reaches the threshold of 5% to 10% of total liver volume, an official diagnosis of fatty liver disease (or hepatic steatosis) can be made.

The Two Main Types of Fatty Liver Disease

Though the physical effects of fatty liver disease remain consistent across types, it’s valuable to have an understanding of the different pathophysiologies, as that influences how the body responds to treatment.

There are two primary types of fatty liver disease: alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

As the name indicates, alcoholic fatty liver disease arises due to long-term alcohol abuse. Scientists have known for centuries that over-consumption of alcohol leads to liver disease. The majority of the metabolization of alcohol transpires in the liver, making it quite susceptible to alcohol-related injury.

In the first stage of alcoholic liver disease (also called alcoholic steatohepatitis), the liver begins to struggle to break down fatty acids. This can result in high serum triglyceride levels, inflammation of the liver (alcoholic hepatitis), and the development of scars in the liver tissue (cirrhosis).

Early intervention can, in some cases, allow the liver to cleanse itself, thereby naturally reversing the buildup of fat. Subsequently, it can function normally once more. Refraining from the consumption of all types of alcohol for a 2-week period can be sufficient, if this step is taken shortly after liver dysfunction sets in.

The longer the accumulation of fat in the liver goes on, the more extensive the related damage, and the greater the likelihood of long-term impairment of liver function, permanent scarring, and liver failure.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 

Alcohol consumption is not the only risk factor for the development of liver disease. Other health considerations can also cause fat to build up in the liver, such as:

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Aging
  • Increased body weight, particularly the development of deposits of belly fat

These can also interfere with the body’s insulin sensitivity, and when the body does not properly register the presence of insulin, it responds to the perceived deficit by accelerating its innate insulin production process. This results in elevated insulin levels, which can set off a cascade of ill-effects, including high blood pressure, elevated serum triglyceride levels, and—you guessed it—the accumulation of fat in the liver.

Nonalcholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be limited to the presence of excess fat in the liver, with very little inflammation and liver damage apart from that, or it can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which involves both liver inflammation and damage. As is the case for liver disease stemming from alcohol abuse, NAFLD and NASH can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Experts estimate that between 80 and 100 million Americans have NAFLD, though many of them are not aware of that due to the fact that it’s largely asymptomatic.

14 Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease

Diagnosing Fatty Liver Disease

Because the early stages of fatty liver disease are often unaccompanied by clear physical indicators, many people do not realize they have the condition until it’s progressed to a more advanced stage or until unrelated medical tests reveal liver dysfunction.

The challenge of detecting fatty liver disease is increased by the fact that blood tests, one of the most common methods of screening for chronic diseases, do not always accurately reflect the health of the liver. Fatty liver disease can cause liver enzyme levels to become elevated, but it’s also entirely possible for individuals with liver disease to have entirely normal enzyme levels, even when the disease progresses to the point of cirrhosis.

Ultrasound may be a more reliable way to diagnose fatty liver, according to a 2018 hospital-based, cross-sectional study published in the Journal of International Medical Research. The authors state that ultrasound’s “sensitivity and specificity in detecting moderate to severe fatty liver are comparable to those of histology [liver biopsy],” a far more invasive procedure. Ultrasound offers doctors a non-invasive way to screen for liver disease in individuals who do not show signs of the disease but may nevertheless be at risk, thereby ensuring they get earlier access to treatment.

Signs and Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease

As fatty liver disease advances and liver function becomes increasingly poor, signs and symptoms do begin to appear. One clear indication of liver disease is altered amino acid metabolism—because of this, supplementing with amino acids (particularly, branched-chain amino acids) can significantly enhance liver health. We’ll share more on that later in the section on proven treatments for fatty liver disease, but first, let’s go over other indicators of liver disease.

Clinical evidence indicates that the following symptoms may point to the presence of liver disease.

  • Pain and tenderness in the upper-right abdomen, due to liver enlargement
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Weakness
  • Itchiness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Spider veins (clusters of blood vessels that resemble spider webs)
  • Confusion and difficulty focusing
  • Ascites (abdominal pain and swelling)
  • Edema (swelling of the legs)
  • Gynecomastia

What Is the Apple Cider Vinegar Fatty Liver Detox?

If you’re serious about improving the health of your liver, you have likely looked into various liver cleanses. There’s little data to support the supposed beneficial effects associated with several players in this realm, including lemon juice, green tea, olive oil, and apple cider vinegar (ACV).

Made from apples that have been mashed, distilled, and fermented, apple cider vinegar has been rumored to have detoxifying properties for centuries. As scientists have analyzed apple cider vinegar’s efficacy as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, they’ve concluded that the high levels of acetic acid and other compounds it contains may indeed influence human health, though exactly how they do so remains somewhat obscure.

Advocates of the detoxifying properties of apple cider vinegar claim that it can:

  • Flush toxins from the body
  • Facilitate weight loss
  • Bring the body’s pH into balance
  • Even out blood sugar levels
  • Drop high cholesterol into the healthy range

Given that, it’s understandable why those same advocates would believe you can use apple cider vinegar to treat fatty liver disease.

4 Safety Tips for Those Interested in Trying the Apple Cider Vinegar Fatty Liver Detox

Scientific Studies on Apple Cider Vinegar and Liver Health

Researchers have confirmed that the substances we eat and drink can both improve and undermine the body’s natural detoxification processes. What’s less clear, however, is whether apple cider vinegar specifically has a beneficial impact on liver health.

Some research has been conducted on proposed ACV benefits relevant to liver health, but the results are far from conclusive.

Weight Loss

This is perhaps the most hyped benefit of apple cider vinegar. Much of the excitement surrounding ACV’s weight-loss benefits can be traced back to a 2009 study done by a Japanese research team. The researchers found that daily consumption of vinegar resulted in modest reductions to:

  • Body weight
  • Visceral and subcutaneous fat mass
  • Serum triglyceride levels

However, the study did not look at the use of ACV in particular (though the researchers did cite ascetic acid and previous animal studies on its benefits).

A very small study from 2007 looked at the effect of apple cider vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER) for 10 individuals with type 1 diabetes. They found that participants who paired a cup of water with 2 tablespoons of ACV mixed in with their serving of pudding had slower rates of gastric emptying than those who simply drank a cup of water. Slower gastric empyting can correlate with increased fullness, which can in turn led to weight loss. However, as the study authors themselves noted in their conclusion: “Clearly, a larger, randomized trial involving a greater number of patients would be needed to validate the findings of this pilot study.”

All in all, the enthusiasm about apple cider vinegar’s ability to encourage weight loss has yet to be corroborated by hard facts.

Cholesterol Levels

As we touched on in the previous section, the 2009 study did find some improvements to cholesterol levels, specifically, to serum triglyceride levels. However, that was not the primary focus of the study.

A small Iranian study that enrolled 19 participants with hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol levels) found that 8 weeks of apple cider vinegar consumption “significantly reduced harmful lipids, i.e., total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride, in blood samples of hyperlipidemic individuals who had never used any lipid-lowering drugs.”

While those are certainly promising results, further studies with larger and more diverse enrollment need to be conducted before arriving at firm conclusions about ACV’s impact on cholesterol levels.

Blood Sugar Regulation

There’s some evidence to suggest that drinking apple cider vinegar can prevent blood sugar spikes associated with carbohydrate consumption. Controlling blood sugar levels is of paramount importance for individuals with diabetes, who also face a higher risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

A small study that enrolled four men and seven women with type 2 diabetes (all of whom were not taking insulin to control their condition) found that ingesting apple cider vinegar before bedtime had a favorable effect on waking glucose levels. However, as is true of the studies on the benefits of ACV cited in the earlier sections, the findings are limited by the study’s small sample size.

Negative Side Effects Associated with the Apple Cider Vinegar Fatty Liver Detox

Given that there’s no conclusive evidence to support the use of apple cider vinegar to treat fatty liver, those interested in trying this treatment should carefully weigh the potential negative side effects against the benefits they hope to achieve.

One of the most common issues associated with apple cider vinegar consumption is the erosion of tooth enamel. A 2014 study designed to evaluate the effects of different types of vinegar on tooth enamel found between 1% and 20% mineral loss (depending on the pH of the vinegar) after 4 hours of exposure. However, this study was done in a laboratory, so it’s not entirely clear how those results would translate into real-life scenarios.

To be safe, those interested in adding ACV to their wellness routines should put one or more of following precautions in place:

  • Carefully monitor the amounts consumed
  • Mix with a glass of water
  • Rinse mouth after drinking
  • Use a straw

Because of its acidic nature, ACV has also been known to upset stomachs, yet another reason to dilute it in water. If you have a sensitive stomach, be sure to pair your doses of ACV with food.

It’s also important to note that apple cider vinegar can interact with certain medications, such as insulin, digoxin, and diuretics. If you currently take prescription drugs, it’s best to consult a doctor before taking ACV.

4 Proven Ways to Treat Fatty Liver Disease

While the evidence backing the use of the apple cider vinegar fatty liver detox can be characterized overall as weak, there are other natural methods for supporting and restoring liver health with much more robust scientific backing.

The best method for you will depend on the factors that have compromised your liver health, but it’s likely to involve shifts to your diet, increased physical activity and, potentially, weight loss. There are also some supplements that have been shown to produce measurable improvements to liver health.

1. Diet

Research has shown that diet has a strong impact on your risk of developing many health conditions, including fatty liver disease. Certain foods can hinder liver health, such as:

  • Trans fats
  • Simple sugars
  • Red meat
  • Salt
  • Fried foods
  • Processed foods

Eating other foods, though, can bring about significant health benefits. In general, a good fatty liver diet will include plenty of high-fiber plant foods and very minimal amounts of sugar, salt, and both trans and saturated fats. Even if alcohol is not the root cause of your liver problems, it’s essential to cut it out of your diet once your liver function has been harmed.

Those already dealing with liver problems, or interested in avoiding liver problems altogether, should be sure to include the following foods in their diets.

  • Green vegetables, such as spinach, kale, and broccoli, which studies found prevented fat from accumulating in the liver
  • Tofu, because soy protein has been shown to decrease fat buildup in the liver
  • Omega-3 rich fish, like salmon, trout, and tuna, since scientists have discovered polyunsaturated fatty acids substantially improve liver health on multiple levels
  • Nuts and seeds, especially sunflower seeds, which contain high levels of vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant proven to combat oxidative stress and halt the progression of liver disease

2. Physical Activity

To date, studies have shown that physical activity plays an overwhelmingly positive role in treating fatty liver disease. Per a 2018 review of 30 randomized controlled trials, “Physical inactivity is related to the severity of fatty liver disease irrespective of body weight.” After reviewing the 30 trials, the authors concluded that data supports the common-sense conclusion that increasing physical activity improves liver health. It appears that exercise affects the development of fatty liver disease across multiple pathways.

Exercise has been shown to:

  • Decrease insulin resistance
  • Reduce excessive transport of fatty acids and glucose to the liver
  • Increase fatty acid oxidation
  • Decrease fatty acid synthesis
  • Stymie the release of molecules that cause mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage

Both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise produce these positive effects.

3. Weight Loss

Carrying around excess body fat does elevate your risk of developing fatty liver disease. And conversely, losing even a small amount of weight can translate to major liver health improvements. According to a 2016 study, weight loss as achievable as 3% to 6% can decrease liver fat by between 35% and 40%.

4. Supplements

While lifestyle changes involving diet and physical activity produce the most profound effects on liver health, certain supplements do have scientifically validated liver health benefits. Three options we consider to be worthwhile are: milk thistle, turmeric, and amino acids.

Milk Thistle

This herbal remedy for fatty liver disease has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic (meaning, it reduces the formation of scar tissue) properties.

According to a study done by an Italian research team, silybin, the primary active compound found in milk thistle extract, has “a remarkable biological effect.” It can reduce liver damage associated with chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It has also been shown to increase cellular vitality and decrease the accumulation of liver fat, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Turmeric

According to a systematic review published in 2019, turmeric and its active compound curcumin may decrease the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the authors note that all the trials they analyzed had small sample sizes, leading them to deem turmeric a “promising, but not proven” treatment for NAFLD.

A study published in Integrative Medicine Research in that same year looked specifically at the findings of randomized controlled trials on the use of turmeric and curcumin supplementation on NAFLD in adult patients. The primary outcomes analyzed were levels of two specific liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The meta-analysis, which included results from a combined total of 228 subjects, found a significant reduction of ALT concentrations among participants who took at least 1,000 milligrams of curcumin daily. This lead the researchers to conclude that high doses of curcumin appear to have a favorable effect on NAFLD, though further large-scale, high-quality studies should be done to confirm that effect.

Amino Acids

A wealth of research supports the benefits of regular amino acid supplementation for individuals who have fatty liver, or who are at risk of developing the condition.

According to a 2018 study, taurine (a sulfur-containing amino acid) can prevent the accumulation of fatty acids in the livers of mice fed high-fat diets. Taurine also prevented oxidative damage and negative changes to liver enzyme levels. These effects led the study’s authors to conclude that taurine could have “therapeutic value” for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

A 2012 study, also done with mice, looked at the use of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The researchers found that supplementing with BCAAs in the early stages of fatty liver disease can slow the progression of the disease—specifically, by decreasing liver fibrosis as well as liver cell death.

Another sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine—available in supplement form as N-acetylcysteine (NAC)—has antioxidant properties to rival those of taurine. Per a 2010 clinical trial, participants who received NAC had significantly improved results in terms of levels of alanine aminotransfrase, aspartate aminotransfrase, and alkaline phosphatase as well as fat buildup and other measurements of liver function. Based on the results achieved at the 3-month mark, the researchers concluded that NAC can improve liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and that better results may be achievable with longer use.

Given what scientists have uncovered about the synergistic effects of amino acids, it’s likely that the positive results achieved via supplementation with single amino acids could be amplified when taken in concert with an amino acid supplement that contains all nine essential amino acids. The essential amino acids work together to facilitate the body’s biological processes, and providing a properly balanced supply of all the necessary building blocks not only safeguards and enhances the health of the liver, but also of the entire body.

Proven Methods for Treating Fatty Liver Disease

Conclusion

Unsurprisingly, the high level of interest in natural remedies for fatty liver disease has led to the proliferation of some less than verifiable claims about certain treatment approaches.

While there’s limited evidence to support the use of the apple cider vinegar fatty liver detox, the evidence that exists comes largely from studies done with animal subjects or with very limited enrollment. Plus, none of the studies focused specifically on the impact of ACV on liver health, but rather on effects related to linked health conditions such as excess body fat, high cholesterol levels, and poor blood sugar regulation.

It’s also important to note that the apple cider vinegar fatty liver detox can have adverse side effects, such as the erosion of tooth enamel, stomach upset, and dangerous interactions with prescription drugs.

Given all that, the wisest choice is likely to try a natural treatment for fatty liver that has more substantial scientific backing. Effectively addressing fatty liver disease will likely require adopting a fatty liver diet and increasing your physical activity level, and may necessitate losing weight too. Incorporating supplements proven to improve liver health, like milk thistle, turmeric, and amino acids, can also be a valuable part of a fatty liver treatment plan.

Understanding Autophagy: Loose Skin, Chronic Disease and Cancer—Some Scientists Say It Could Be the Key to Treating and Preventing All of These 

Maximize the ability of autophagy, a cellular cleansing process, to prevent loose skin after weight loss, chronic diseases, and even cancer. Read on to learn about the science behind autophagy as well as how it can help those on weight-loss journeys.

Autophagy (pronounced ah-TAH-fuh-gee), a medical term, describes a regenerative cellular process that decreases your risk of developing a multitude of serious diseases, extends your lifespan, and improves your overall health and well-being. In some circles, there’s particularly intense interest in the impact of autophagy on loose skin following weight loss, a frustrating side effect that can require surgery to address.

Read on to learn about the science behind autophagy as well as how it can help those on weight-loss journeys.

What Is Autophagy?

In simple terms, the concept of autophagy can be defined as follows: without external nutrients, the body begins to consume itself. The term comes from the Greek words “auto” meaning self and “phage” meaning to eat.

While this may sound like the premise for a horror movie, it can be incredibly beneficial. During the process of autophagy, specialized membranes seek out cells that are dead, damaged, or diseased and use their component parts for energy or to make new cells.

“Think of it as our body’s innate recycling program,” said Dr. Colin Champ, assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, in an interview. Other experts have summed it up as “cellular housekeeping” or “cellular quality control.”

Though Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve originated the term “autophagy” in 1963, much of what we now know about this vital process was not discovered until well into the 2000s. In fact, pioneering Japanese biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi won a Nobel Prize for his investigations into the mechanisms of autophagy in 2016. Scientists working in the field, however, caution that what we currently don’t know about autophagy would fill far more books than what we do.

7 Proven Benefits of Autophagy

Autophagy plays a fundamental and essential role in overall cellular function by recycling disused or dysfunctional components that, if left in place, can become problematic. By doing so, autophagy can prevent the development of several types of diseases. Here are 7 proven ways autophagy benefits your health.

1. Decrease Systemic Inflammation

A 2017 review published in Clinical and Translational Medicine states that “increasing evidence” demonstrates autophagy can help to prevent the development of inflammatory diseases.

“Autophagy plays critical roles in inflammation through influencing the development, homeostasis and survival of inflammatory cells, including macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes; effecting the transcription, processing and secretion of a number of cytokines, as well as being regulated by cytokines,” the authors state. Essentially, this means that autophagy helps to ensure that all the cells regulating your body’s inflammatory processes are working properly.

The authors go on to say that studies suggest autophagy’s positive influence on inflammatory cells offers promise as a therapeutic intervention for diseases linked to inflammation, including:

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Obstructive pulmonary disease

2. Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

Findings published in Frontiers in Neuroscience, a leading journal in its field, point to autophagy as a way to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

As we’ve established, autophagy repurposes cellular components, including misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins is believed to cause symptoms of many neurodegenerative diseases to worsen. So, by preventing that, autophagy can mitigate the severity of those diseases.

3. Safeguard Mental Health

Some research has shown that when autophagy does not occur with sufficient frequency, your mental health can be negatively impacted.

A study published in Molecular Psychiatry, a peer-reviewed journal, looked at the connection between autophagy and mental health. When they analyzed the brains of schizophrenia patients, the authors found clear reductions in post-mortem levels of proteins that control autophagy. They determined that the direct association between autophagy and the progression of schizophrenia could offer a pathway to new methods of treatment.

4. Increase Longevity

A review published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation claims that inducing autophagy can counteract cellular aging processes and enhance the metabolic activity of your cells, resulting in increased longevity.

This claim stems from experimental findings, and it’s not yet clear exactly how autophagy increases anti-aging activity and extends life spans, though studies with mice have shown that to be the case.

5. Suppress Tumor Growth

It’s clear that the process of autophagy is intimately linked to the development of cancer, but exactly what effect it has on tumor initiation and development remains somewhat murky.

Per a review published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, “Many studies have found that autophagy plays dual roles in cell survival and cell death in the context of tumor initiation and development.” The authors elaborate that while autophagy has been shown to suppress tumor formation in certain instances, it also seems to contribute to cancer progression by supplying nutrients to cancer cells in others.

More research is needed to fully understand how to harness the power of autophagy to prevent cancer. In the future, however, the authors believe it could be “a potentially effective therapeutic strategy in anticancer therapy.”

6. Support Maintenance of a Healthy Weight

Some of what we know about autophagy comes from research in what happens in its absence. For instance, a study done with mice and published in Cell Metabolism found that deleting an essential autophagy gene led to higher body weights, increased fat mass, and higher rates of glucose intolerance.

According to the authors, these findings indicate that an autophagy deficiency may play a role in the development of obesity.

7. Prevent Sagging Skin Post-Weight Loss

Though this benefit does not have rigorous scientific support, solid anecdotal evidence indicates that autophagy can help those who have lost weight—particularly, individuals who have lost a lot of weight—from needing skin removal surgeries. Dr. Jason Fung, a nephrologist who specializes in research into fasting, has developed a program designed to help people successfully lose weight and reverse conditions linked to weight gain, such as type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and fatty liver.

“We’ve never sent a single person for skin-removal surgery,” said Dr. Fung in an interview. “We have anecdotal cases where people have lost 120, 130 pounds, and they said their skin also shrank, too.”

Fung believes this happens because the body harvests the protein contained in excess skin. “Remember, during fasting, you’re activating a pathway within your body that says, ‘Okay, we need to buckle down because we’re in a time of famine, so to speak, and we don’t need all that extra skin, so let’s burn it. And if you need it, we’ll build it again.’”

How to Increase the Efficacy of Autophagy for Loose Skin

Is It Possible to Trigger Autophagy?

Though it has not yet been definitively proved that it’s possible to trigger autophagy in humans, studies done with animals indicate that fasting and calorie restriction may be means of inducing autophagy.

A literature review published in Ageing Research Reviews in 2018 found that “the evidence overwhelmingly suggests that autophagy is induced in a wide variety of tissues and organs in response to food deprivation.” In other words, there’s a very high likelihood that if you fast, autophagy will occur.

Studies done with mice have historically delineated 24 hours as the marker for when autophagy sets in, but it’s not clear whether the same would hold true for humans. Dr. Fung believes that autophagy most likely sets in during the later stages of an extended fast, “somewhere around 20 to 24 hours is my guess, and it probably maxes out somewhere around 32 hours, again, my best guess.”

While scientists have yet to agree upon a surefire way to trigger autophagy, this process does occur naturally, though it’s unclear how frequently or extensively it takes place without outside stimulus. Fasting, exercise, and other forms of physiological stress seems to cause the process to accelerate.

However, it’s quite challenging to measure autophagy (technically, what would be measured would be termed autophagic flux) in humans, as it requires tracking the levels of minuscule proteins, including protein 1A and LC3.

Does Autophagy Have Any Negative Effects?

While autophagy clearly has a host of remarkable benefits, it can cause problems too. An article published in PLOS Biology termed it a “double-edged sword.”

Author Andrew Thorburn of the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine explained that “autophagy’s effects may work for both the good and the bad of an organism.” When it comes to conditions like treating bacterial infections, autophagy sometimes leads to improvement and sometimes causes conditions to worsen. According to Thorburn, using autophagy effectively will require a better understanding of which cells it degrades and under what circumstances.

It’s important to note as well that using fasting as a method for inducing autophagy comes with its own risks. There are no universal medical recommendations at this time, but most experts agree that extended fasts—going without food for 36-, 48-, or even a full 72 hour-fast—should only be undertaken by those in good health. Extended fasting should not be done too frequently either. As a general rule, it should only be undertaken 2 or 3 times annually. Confer with a trusted doctor before embarking on a fast to make sure it’s safe for you.

If you have previously engaged in unhealthy food restrictions behaviors or have been diagnosed with an eating disorder like anorexia, it’s likely best to avoid fasting.

Expert Advice on Triggering Autophagy

Because autophagy is a stress response, to intentionally trigger it, you will have to endure some discomfort. “It’s our ancestral and evolutionary response to dealing with feast and famine in times of stress,” said Dr. Champ.

If you’d like to try triggering autophagy, one of these three methods is a good place to start.

1. Enter a State of Ketosis

If the idea of fasting feels daunting or there are reasons you should avoid it, evidence shows you can also activate autophagy by entering ketosis. By restricting your carbohydrate intake and increasing your fat intake, you can shift your body into a state in which it uses fat rather than carbs as its primary source of fuel. This is the scientific basis for the immensely popular high-fat, low-carb ketogenic diet, commonly abbreviated as the keto diet.

In order to adhere to the keto diet, you’ll need to keep your carbohydrate intake at no more than 5% of your total calories, your protein intake between 20% and 30%, and your fat percentage at between 60% and 70%.

Studies have shown that entering ketosis can bring about significant fat loss while maintaining muscle mass. Other proven medical uses for the keto diet include improving the treatment of epilepsy and other brain conditions (in fact, it was developed to treat epilepsy in children), lowering your risk of diabetes, and assisting your body in defeating cancerous tumors.

According to Champ, “Ketosis is like an autophagy hack. You get a lot of the same metabolic changes and benefits of fasting without actually fasting.”

2. Experiment with Intermittent Fasting

Extended fasts can be grueling, but that may not be necessary in order to spur autophagy.

A Brazilian research team published a research review indicating that intermittent fasting can help increase autophagy, which makes cancer treatments more effective and reduces side effects. They note, however: “Additional studies are required to better understand the molecular mechanisms evoked by fasting, aiming to identify the context in which fasting may be beneficial as an adjunct to cancer treatment.”

In the meantime, it certainly seems worthwhile to give intermittent fasting a try, if for no other reason than the wealth of benefits they mention that have been associated with intermittent fasting, such as an extended lifespan and a lower risk of diseases including:

  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Neurodegenerative conditions

As with extended fasting, there are limitations on who should try intermittent fasting. It’s typically not advisable for children, pregnant women, or individuals with diabetes or other blood sugar issues to follow this fasting protocol.

3. Engage in Regular Exercise

As you may know, exercising creates microscopic tears in your muscles. When your body repairs those tears, that process leads to bigger, stronger muscles. It appears that exercise also increases the rate at which your body carries out autophagy.

A study published in Nature, an international journal of science, found: “Acute exercise induces autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of fed mice.” The authors discovered that after 30 minutes of running on a treadmill, the rate at which mice recycled their own cells via autophagy increased significantly and continued to do so until the 80-minute marker at which point rates leveled out.

Scientists have not yet pinpointed the threshold require for humans to kickstart autophagy. Dr. Daniel Kilonsky, a cellular biologist specializing in autophagy, says that at the moment, it’s proving quite difficult to answer that question.  However, he reminds us that exercise, like intermittent fasting, has many other benefits.

3 Possible Methods for Triggering Autophagy

Additional Advice on Naturally Addressing Loose Skin

If your primary interest in autophagy has to do with its potential role in addressing loose skin following weight loss, you may want to incorporate these other natural methods for resolving loose skin without plastic surgery.

A key aspect of doing so is improving skin elasticity. Without proper elasticity, your skin cannot adapt to physical changes such as weight loss. To maintain or enhance skin elasticity, you’ll need to sustain an adequate supply of collagen.

All the collagen in your body begins as procollagen. To make procollagen, your body uses two amino acids: glycine and proline. Certain nutrients have been shown to increase the rate at which your body produces those amino acids, such as vitamin C, copper, selenium, and zinc.

Citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, and raw liver all contain high concentrations of vitamin C. Organ meats are generally high in copper, as are cashews, sesame seeds, lentils, and cocoa powder. You can get plenty of selenium from seafood (salmon in particular) and Brazil nuts, while oysters and red meat are rich in zinc.

Consuming foods high in glycine and proline themselves also boosts procollagen production. Good sources of glycine include gelatin as well as pork and chicken skin, while egg whites, dairy products, wheat germ, mushrooms, asparagus, and cabbage provide lots of proline.

Because your body needs a balanced supply of all the amino acids in order to effectively utilize them, you’ll also want to eat foods with overall high levels of amino acids, like:

  • Red meat
  • Poultry
  • Seafood
  • Legumes
  • Tofu

Interestingly, eating foods high in collagen, such as bone broth, is not necessarily the best way to raise levels in the body. That’s because when you consume protein, your body breaks it down into its component amino acids.

3 Possible Methods for Triggering Autophagy

How to Avoid Loose Skin After Weight Loss

Significant weight loss can result in loose, sagging skin. Studies show these 6 methods can help you avoid loose skin or minimize its appearance.

We tend to treat weight loss, particularly major weight loss, as the triumphant endpoint of a difficult journey. We divide weight-loss journeys into “Before” and “After,” often with a single photo representing the start and finish of that journey. However, this story only captures one aspect of what it’s like to lose weight. What often gets left out of weight-loss stories is that when you move from a higher body weight to a significantly lower one, you may experience other unwanted physical changes, such as loose skin. There is absolutely nothing wrong with embracing loose skin—as individuals like Kenzie Brenna, an actress, writer, and body-positivity activist, have publicly done—in fact, it’s an admirable goal and an indication of deep self-acceptance. That said, there’s also nothing wrong with wanting to learn how to avoid loose skin after weight loss.

For some people, loose skin can be damaging to their mental health and self-esteem. It can also be physically uncomfortable, particularly during physical exercise. Once you develop loose skin, it can be quite challenging to reverse without plastic surgery.

Less invasive options do exist, however, many of which are most effective when put in place preemptively. Before sharing eight ways you can avoid loose skin after weight loss, we’ll first cover some basic facts about the skin as well as risk factors that impact how likely you are to develop loose skin.

How Does Skin Function?

One of the pitfalls of the rapid loss of a lot of weight is the development of excess skin. A New York Times article covering a pioneering study that followed contestants from season eight of the popular TV show “The Biggest Loser” for 6 years after the series finale addressed this issue. Per the article, prior to the finale weigh-in during the show’s finale to determine the winner, contestants “dressed carefully to hide the rolls of loose skin that remained, to their surprise and horror, after they had lost weight. They wore compression undergarments to hold it in.”

In order to understand why rapid, significant weight loss so often results in loose skin, you must have a basic grasp of how skin functions.

The skin—which is the largest human organ—acts as a barrier to keep your body safe from viruses, fungi, bacteria, and other potentially harmful contaminants. Collagen and elastin, two proteins found in the second layer of the skin, (the dermis), allow it to stretch and contract as we move and grow.

As an individual gains weight, those proteins must continually stretch to allow the skin to adapt to that change. This can cause the fibers of those proteins to become weak and damaged. Thus, when significant weight-loss occurs, the elastin and collagen in the skin may not be readily able to contract.

“Skin stretches to form the shape of your body since it’s an ‘elastic’ organ,” Certified Exercise Physiologist Lizbeth Simancas summarized. “Your skin may not contract back to its smaller shape if weight is lost too quickly.” This can be seen most clearly for individuals who undergo bariatric surgery, but those who quickly lose a lot of weight through intense diet and exercise practices, like competitors on “Biggest Loser,” can experience this too.

The more weight is lost, the greater the demand on the skin’s previously overtaxed capacity for elasticity. And, therefore, the greater the likelihood of saggy skin post-weight loss.

What Factors Contribute to the Development of Loose Skin After Weight Loss?

Dr. Christine Choi Kim, medical and cosmetic dermatologist, underlines that fact that the skin is a living organ, and while it responds to weight gain by stretching and expanding, its ability to contract in response to weight loss is inherently more limited. Dr. Kim notes, too, that this ability to tighten depends on a number of factors, such as:

  • Age: The aging process often causes the skin to become less elastic, impairing its ability to tighten after weight loss.
  • Genetics: Some individuals are more prone to sagging skin as they grow older, regardless of weight loss.
  • Baseline strength of elastin and collagen proteins: As is the case when it comes to your genes and your age, you can’t control the impact your baseline skin elasticity will have on its ability to bounce back after you lose weight.
  • Degree of weight gain and loss: As touched on previously, the more weight you lose, and the shorter the period of time in which you lose it, the harder it will be for your skin to adapt.
  • Nutrient intake: To keep your skin healthy, you’ll need to provide it with a balanced intake of nutrients, particularly vitamins C and E and the substances that act as precursors for the development of collagen and elastin.
  • Sun exposure: While some degree of sun exposure is a healthy way to meet your body’s vitamin D needs, excess exposure can lead to skin damage.
  • Smoking history: Yet another reason to kick the habit, or avoid  cigarettes in the first place. A plethora of studies show that smoking speeds the normal aging process of your skin.

Understanding the factors that influence skin elasticity can help you avoid loose skin after weight loss. If possible, it’s best to address this issue preventatively as it’s far more difficult to tighten skin that has already begun to sag than it is to forestall the sagging.

According to Kim, “Excess skin can lead to embarrassment and a lack of satisfaction with your body image—even after significant weight loss.” Equip yourself with the knowledge you need to keep the triumph of achieving a major weight-loss goal from being marred by unexpected changes to your skin.

7 Factors That Contribute to the Development of Loose Skin

How to Avoid Loose Skin After Weight Loss

First, it’s important to be clear that there is no guaranteed way to avoid loose skin after weight loss. Depending on the amount of weight you lose, when you gained the weight and how long you carried it, as well as your skin’s baseline elasticity, some extra skin may be unavoidable. However, the experts say that the following 6 practices can help you avoid loose skin after weight loss, or minimize the appearance of existing excess skin.

1. Lose Weight Gradually

Perhaps the single most effective way to avoid loose skin after weight loss is to progress gradually toward your weight-loss goal. Slower weight loss makes it less arduous for skin to snap back into place.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends aiming to lose between 1 and 2 pounds per week. Not only will this make it easier for your skin to keep pace, but it also makes it less likely that you’ll regain the weight.

Furthermore, a study published in the International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism found that losing weight slowly results in more favorable changes to body composition. Study participants were randomly divided into two groups—a rapid weight-loss group that followed a diet plan designed to produce a daily 1,000- to 1,500-calorie deficit and a slow weight-loss group whose diet produced an energy deficit of 500 to 750 calories daily.

While both protocols led to reductions in waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat mass, and more, individuals in the slow weight-loss group experienced more significant reductions to waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and percentage of body fat, all of which are linked to improved health.

2. Engage in Regular Cardio and Strength Training Exercise

Adding exercise to your gradual weight-loss plan also increases the odds that your skin will be able to tighten up as your weight decreases.

Both strength training and cardio make important contributions. Cardio, or aerobic exercise, can be a highly effective way to burn calories, which will help you move toward your weight-loss goal. However, if you exclusively engage in cardio training, you may lose lean muscle mass also with fat, which can increase the appearance of saggy skin as well as adversely impact your metabolism.

Strength training, however, can help you build muscle, which in turn raises your metabolic rate. One of the factors that determines your basal metabolic rate (BMR), which accounts for the vast majority of the calories you burn each day, is the amount of lean muscle you have. Muscle tissue has higher energy (calorie) demands than fat while at rest, meaning that even when you’re not working out, having more muscles translates to a greater caloric expenditure. No matter what you weigh, the more muscle and the less fat you have, the higher your BMR.

“If you have more muscle, it burns fuel more rapidly,” stated Columbia University professor Michael Rosenbaum, who specializes in weight loss and metabolism. Rosenbaum cautions, though, that if you do succeed in speeding up your metabolism, “you have to fight the natural tendency to [want to] eat more as a result of your higher metabolism.”

Still, when taking the long view of your overall health, there are clearly more benefits to physical activity than drawbacks, including the fact that weight lifting and resistance training can minimize the appearance of existing loose skin by building muscles that will fill it out. If your goal is to look lean and toned rather than built and bulky, don’t worry, you won’t accidentally develop the physique of a bodybuilder—that requires a high level of intention and commitment.

3. Optimize Your Diet

In order to lose weight and ensure you don’t subsequently gain weight, it’s important to build a diet based on whole, minimally processed foods.

A 2017 clinical trial called the DIETFITS study (the acronym stands for “Diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) set out to identify factors that predispose individuals to experience greater success when following certain weight-loss diets so that experts can more effectively match patients with dietary interventions.

Interestingly, participants in both the low-fat and low-carbohydrate groups lost comparable amounts of weight. This drew attention among health practitioners reviewing the results to the elements that remained consistent between the two diets.

Both groups were encouraged to:

  • Focus on unprocessed, high-quality foods
  • Eat as many vegetables as possible
  • Prepare meals at home
  • Restrict or eliminate trans fats, added sugars, and refined carbohydrates, including flour

Participants also had regular sessions with dietitians and access to counseling to help them break emotional eating patterns.

The findings are quite encouraging. You don’t need to follow a complicated or overly restrictive diet in order to lose weight. Instead, you can use the principles described above, which leave plenty of room for shaping a diet that accounts for your personal preferences and lifestyle.

4. Stop Smoking

Research unequivocally shows that skin damage is among the many adverse effects of cigarette smoking. In fact, even secondhand smoke exposure has been shown to decrease collagen levels, increase inflammation, and fuel oxidative damage.

A study published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications found that when rats were exposed to cigarette smoke, collagen levels in their skin decreased significantly compared to control rats. The authors concluded that long-term secondhand smoke exposure would likely “affect the appearance of the skin [and] accelerate the skin aging process.”

If you’re serious about maximizing the elasticity of your skin, which you will need to do in order to prevent it from becoming loose or saggy, the decision is clear: stop smoking.

5. Try Firming Creams

If you have room in your budget and are looking for a way to immediately tighten loose skin, you may want to try firming creams.

The results of these products tend to be rather subtle, and most impactful when skin is also in need of hydration. These products often use retinoids or collagen as their active ingredient.

One of the ways retinoids work is by preventing free radical damage that negatively impacts skin tone. They can also speed up collagen production, which can boost the elasticity of the skin.

As you know, collagen is one of the key proteins that keeps your skin tight and firm. There’s some evidence that the topical application of collagen can temporarily improve the appearance of the skin, but collagen molecules are too large to be absorbed through the skin so the results will not be lasting.

A popular natural treatment, grapeseed oil, does have some scientific backing. A study published in Pharmacognosy Magazine looked at a number of herbal ingredients touted for their ability to increase skin’s elasticity and found that grapeseed did produce measurable changes to moisture levels, softness, and tightness.

6. Supplement Strategically

As wonderful as it would be if scientists could formulate a magic pill, or combination of supplements, that completely prevents or treats loose skin, that’s yet to be announced. In the meantime, an optimal supply of the following nutrients will ensure your skin has all the raw materials it needs to be maximally healthy.

While you might assume that collagen supplements would be on this list, it tends to be more effective to consume supplements that increase collagen production, such as vitamin C and certain amino acids.

Vitamin C

Scientists have confirmed that vitamin C has impressive abilities when it comes to stimulating collagen production.

A 2018 systematic review examined the efficacy of vitamin C supplementation as a means of promoting collagen synthesis, and found that not only did vitamin C increase collagen synthesis, but it also reduced oxidative stress. The authors also found no evidence of adverse side effects.

Furthermore, an article published in Nutrients in 2017 specifically touched on the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on skin sagging related to weight loss. According to the article, a higher intake of vitamin C can be linked to improved skin tightness.

Glycine

Collagen, one of the most abundant proteins not only in the skin, but also throughout the entire human body, contains between 2 and 10 amino acids. Glycine might be the most impactful of those. This simple, naturally occurring amino acid elevates collagen production, facilitates skin regeneration, and increases moisture retention.

Though your body produces its own glycine from other amino acids, it can be beneficial to increase your glycine intake, either by eating glycine-rich foods like red meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and legumes or by taking a high-quality amino acid supplement.

Lysine

This essential amino acid plays a vital role in the function of your skin, ensuring that its supportive structures remain strong and intact. Our bodies also need lysine for collagen development, tissue repair, and other important physiological processes.

Good food sources of lysine include:

  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish (especially cod and sardines)
  • Cheese (especially Parmesan)
  • Soy products
  • Spirulina
  • Fenugreek
  • Legumes
  • Nuts

6 Science-Backed Methods for Avoiding Loose Skin After Weight Loss

Losing a significant amount of weight, particularly if you do so after weight-loss surgery, or using another method to lose a lot of weight in a short period of time often causes loose skin to develop. Embracing this physical change is a viable and commendable option, but it’s equally valid to seek out ways to avoid loose skin after weight loss or to encourage skin to tighten.

There’s no one single skin tightening technique that can fully restore skin elasticity for each and every person; however, scientific findings indicate that using one or more of the methods described above will likely prevent or reduce the appearance of loose skin.

What Is the Amino Diet?

Find out what the amino acid diet entails, which amino acids are included, how they function to help you lose weight, and whether there’s a better amino acid option out there.

Wondering what is the amino diet?

The amino diet is a weight-loss diet plan that operates on the principle that amino acid supplementation along with a healthy diet and exercise routine will help you shed pounds even faster and more effectively than healthy eating and exercise alone. This highly structured program is designed for those looking to lose weight quickly, for those hoping to achieve weight loss while keeping a vegetarian diet, and for those wanting to know exactly what they should eat and when every day. If this is the sort of weight-loss program that sounds good to you, read on for the details.

How Does the Amino Diet Work?

The liquid amino diet comes with an eyedropper full of amino acids, a diet guidebook, and a three-stage plan to follow to prime you for losing weight and keeping it off. It’s not only possible to follow this diet without consuming any meat (simply skip the meals that suggest meat and replace them with a non-meat protein option), but it’s also focused on low glycemic index foods, ideal for diabetics hoping to take control of their weight.

What is the amino acid diet?

What Is the Amino Diet and Its Phases?

While the eating plan for the amino diet is quite restrictive, the founder Dr. Humble Finsand ensured that you’d never feel hungry by allowing for up to five meals per day. In addition to an improved dietary intake, the weight-loss supplement at play here isn’t a diet pill as much as it’s insurance you’re getting enough amino acids.

Amino acids are important for, among other things, balancing hormones, building muscle, and managing weight. Following this diet’s three phases will help you control your blood sugar levels and burn fat quickly and safely. The phases are:

  • Phase 1: The initial step is the main weight-loss phase, lasting between 30-90 days. You’ll take the recommended amount of amino drops each day, and transition into clean eating, which involves a daily allotment of about 1,000 calories of lean protein, vegetables, fruits, healthy fats, and some carbs.
  • Phase 2Discontinue taking the amino drops and increase your calorie intake up to 1,500. This is to prevent your body from entering starvation mode, which is characterized by weight gain because your body thinks it needs fat stored to protect against famine. More carbs and food varieties will be allowed during this phase.
  • Phase 3: This final phase turns the reins back over to you as you gradually increase your food variety (perhaps welcoming back your favorite natural sugars and starches), and maintain the weight loss you achieved by leading a healthy lifestyle. Should the weight return, you can begin the cycle again.

Note: the diet drops are only meant to be taken in Phase 1, though other supplements like fish oil and protein powders are recommended throughout.

The Pros and Cons of the Amino Diet

There are upsides and downsides to this diet that you may want to consider before trying it.

Pros

  • Low-glycemic foods: The amino diet is a low-glycemic diet, perfect for those with blood sugar concerns or diabetes.
  • No guesswork: The diet program is laid out very clearly in a book that provides 30 days’ worth of meals and food choices.
  • Vegetarian options: You can avoid eating meat by choosing the protein options and meals that don’t contain meat or fish.
  • No hunger: You can eat up to five meals a day with this plan and still expect to lose weight.
  • Aminos acids: You are provided with an amino acid supplement that will help ensure your nutrient balance.

Cons

  • Fewer choices: Some foods are eliminated entirely for this diet, and the limited range of food may become discouraging.
  • Costly plans: A 30-day plan can run up to $90, a 60-day plan goes up to about $140, and a 90-day plan can cost $180. Longer plans are needed depending on how much weight loss you pursue. Each plan comes with a guidebook, a 30-day meal plan, and amino acid appetite suppressants.
  • Extreme calorie deficits: The initial phase of this plan calls for extremely low calorie intake, which may not be advisable for everyone and can put the body into starvation mode if continued for too long. Consult your doctor before dramatically reducing your calorie intake.
  • Possible medication interactions: It’s important to make sure the drops will not affect any medication you’re currently taking, so be sure to seek medical advice before adding any dietary supplements to your daily intake.
  • Amino limits: The liquid amino acid diet only utilizes amino acid supplementation for the first phase, when essential amino acids are needed all the time. More than that, it only includes a limited amount of amino acids instead of a full roster of the essential amino acids.

What Amino Acids Are in the Liquid Amino Diet?

Along with phytolacca berry and other ingredients intended to aid weight loss, the amino acids contained in Dr. Finsand’s amino acid supplement bottle are L-arginine, L-carnitine, and L-ornithine, none of which are essential amino acids. Essential aminos are the ones your body cannot synthesize itself, meaning they need to be consumed in the proper amount each day for new muscle growth to take place.

  • L-arginine: This amino acid is converted into nitric oxide in the body, which allows your blood vessels to relax and open wider for better blood flow. L-arginine also acts as a stimulant for the release of insulin, growth hormone, and other important bodily substances.
  • L-carnitine: Red meat, chicken, fish, milk, beans, and avocado all contain carnitine, and while vegans may have to worry they’re not getting enough, because L-carnitine is a nonessential amino acid, most of us are able to produce enough L-carnitine naturally.
  • L-ornithine: This amino is used to remove waste from the body, and there is some research suggesting L-ornithine may help improve your energy levels.

Speaking of low energy levels, when it comes to amino acids for adrenal fatigue, getting the proper amounts of the essential amino acids can help boost your energy, bolster your immune system, and manage your weight.

Rapid Weight Loss and Fat Burning—What’s the Secret?

There are many diets that are designed to help you drop weight, especially dangerous belly fat. People will eat a Paleo diet, the ketogenic diet, or another 30-day designed diet like the Whole30 diet to try and drop weight quickly. How does the amino diet measure up?

Amino diet reviews show that it’s quite common for people to lose between 5-7 pounds in the first week, but those reviews may have less to do with amino supplementation and more to do with changing their diets to high-protein, low-carb foods and meals and substantially reducing calorie intake.

Likewise, the amino diet weight-loss plan also calls for exercise and offers consultation with health coaches. Eating well and getting regular exercise will help you lose body weight without supplementation, so there’s no secret there. However, the right supplements can indeed make the process quicker and easier.

Amino Acids for Weight Loss

If you’re looking to supplement with amino acids to lose weight and boost your exercise performance and muscle growth, you may want to look into products that offer a full host of the essential amino acids, rather than supplementing with the ones your body already produces.

We here at Amino Co. have a scientifically formulated essential amino acid supplement specifically designed to help you build muscle, lose weight, and improve your overall health and well-being, and we would recommend supplementation that is more complete than the amino acid diet drops. Again, talk to a trusted medical professional before adding any dietary supplement to your regimen, but when it comes to amino acid supplements, make sure you’re getting all the essentials you need.

The Benefits of Coconut Aminos

Coconut aminos are the gluten-free, no-MSG, low-sodium alternative to soy sauce—find out what other benefits they can provide, no matter what dietary restriction or allergies you have.

Find out what are coconut aminos, why some people use them to replace soy sauce, how to get them, and how to use them. We’re also dishing on the health benefits of coconut aminos, which are pretty impressive!

What Are Coconut Aminos?

Coconut aminos are sold as a liquid condiment, a dark sweet-and-salty product that is often used as an alternative to tamari or soy sauce. With low salt and low glycemic contents, coconut aminos are also vegan, gluten free, soy free, and full of amino acids as the name suggests.

A favorite among those eating a paleo diet or dealing with a gluten sensitivity or celiac’s disease, coconut aminos are actually a great product for anyone who wants to avoid the high salt content of soy sauce.

Coconut aminos, unlike coconut oil, are made by fermenting raw coconut-blossom nectar (sap) with mineral-rich sea salt. From those unopened flowers come a wide array of products, including alcohol, vinegar, syrup, sweeteners, and coconut aminos. Coconut sap needs no additives to ferment, as it naturally has all the right yeast, sugar, and bacteria. It ages from a milky white color to a dark brown, and then is mixed with sea salt for flavoring.

A natural whole food with B vitamins, vitamin C, and 17 amino acids (including all nine essential amino acids required for new muscle growth), coconut aminos have a lot to offer.

Are Coconut Aminos Healthier Than Soy Sauce?

If coconut aminos still contain salt, how is coconut amino liquid healthier than soy sauce? Though coconut aminos do come with sugar and salt, as a soy sauce alternative they have less sodium per gram. A 5-gram serving of coconut aminos yields 5 calories, 1 gram of carbs, zero fat, and about 73% less sodium than soy sauce does. That’s roughly 113 milligrams of sodium per serving, just 5% of the recommended daily value.

Coconut aminos also have a low glycemic index number, which ranks foods based on how they impact blood sugar levels. At a 35 on the glycemic index, coconut aminos are a much healthier choice for those with diabetes, and for maintaining healthier blood sugar levels over all. Coconut amino seasoning sauce in Asian food recipes like fried rice is better than soy sauce in a few more ways.

  • Soy sauce can come fermented or unfermented. Fermented soy sauce offers the benefits of probiotics, but unfermented does not, and often contains wheat (a problem for those with food sensitivities to gluten).
  • A lot of soy sauces are genetically modified (GMO) products, the health effects of which are not fully known, and may cause allergies in children.
  • Soy sauce contains monosodium glutamate (MSG), which can cause weakness, muscle pain, and headaches in those who are vulnerable to its affects.
  • A high-sodium diet can have a dangerous impact on anyone’s blood pressure, and with 73% more sodium in soy sauce than coconut aminos, it’s safer to go with the low sodium option.

For those reasons, many people are saying goodbye to commercial soy sauces and hello to the gluten free, sustainable, and organic coconut amino alternative instead.

Coconut aminos: health benefits and dietary uses.The Benefits of Coconut Aminos

While coconut aminos have not been extensively studied, coconut sap has, in both its fresh and fermented form. That research provides the following beneficial credits.

Amino Acid Content

Amino acids not only make up all the protein in your body, but are also responsible for hormone synthesis and regulating your immune function and response. With 17 essential (all the essentials in fact!) and nonessential aminos, coconut aminos provide you with the building blocks of protein and more.

Probiotic Digestion Aid

Fermented foods like kefir, kimchi, and coconut aminos improve your gut’s bacterial content by adding more good bacteria into the mix, and coconut aminos provide an organic probiotic boost to the health of your gut flora. Scientifically shown to benefit digestion and help decrease the symptoms of allergies, probiotics are a healthy choice.

One of the commonest fungal infections in modern times is candidiasis, resulting from a bacteria that tends to overgrow in our digestive tracts and is responsible for symptoms like bloating, gas, nausea, and diarrhea. The lactobacillus contained in coconut aminos helps to inhibit fungal candida albicans, reducing the likelihood that it will overgrow and cause harm to its host (us humans).

An MSG- and Gluten-Free Alternative

Those with a sensitivity to MSG, which is often added to soy sauce, can use coconut aminos instead. MSG has been shown to exacerbate migraine headaches, increase blood pressure, and negatively harm the human body. Moreover, as coconut aminos are gluten free, it’s a safer and healthier alternative for many, especially those who suffer from celiac disease and cannot ingest gluten whatsoever without severe consequences.

How to Use Coconut Aminos

What might you use soy sauce for? That is where coconut aminos can sub in perfectly. From a sushi dipping sauce to a marinade to salad dressing, coconut aminos have the same consistency and a similar taste to soy sauce and pair well with any Asian culinary dish. A vegetable stir fry with 73% less sodium? That’s an extremely healthy and easy way to use a soy sauce substitute.

Coconut Aminos: Dietary Restrictions and Allergies

Even better, because coconut aminos are so allergen-free, they fit into any healthy diet, from the Whole30 diet, to the keto diet, to paleo and AIP diets, vegan and vegetarian diets, gluten-free diets, and the Candida diet (designed to prevent bacterial overgrowth). Whatever your restrictions or dietary choices, you can rely on coconut aminos.

The same cannot be said about tamari though, so for those still deciding between tamari vs. coconut aminos in the great soy sauce replacement debate, tamari products are not always 100% gluten-free. Though it’s made without the roasted grains of soy sauce, you’ll have to check tamari’s label every time to make sure there is no wheat in use at any stage in the process. Also for those with soy allergies, it’s a no-go: tamari is still the end result of fermented soybeans.

So in the end, if you’re looking for a soy-free seasoning sauce that won’t disrupt your carefully kept diet, you’re probably looking for coconut aminos. That goes the same for coconut aminos vs. liquid aminos: liquid aminos are made by treating soybeans with an acid that breaks down its proteins into amino acids, and while it (like coconut aminos) is a gluten-free product, it still has soy, and a lot more sodium per serving size to boot. A teaspoon of coconut aminos comes with 90 milligrams of sodium, while liquid aminos have 320 milligrams per teaspoon—that’s even higher than many traditional soy sauces.

Side Effects

Good news: there are no reported adverse side effects to consuming coconut aminos. Short of being allergic to coconuts, coconut aminos are safe to welcome into your diet and have no noted interactions with any medications whatsoever.

Go Loco for Coco Aminos

For an alternative to soy sauce that’s sustainable, organic, soy free, gluten free, vegan, kosher, and free of MSG, coconut aminos are your ideal answer. Not only will you lose the unhealthy impact of soy sauce, but you’ll also gain the probiotic benefits of a fermented food product. While it may be hard to find on store shelves outside of the largest health food chains, you can easily browse the Internet and research the many brands of coconut aminos to find one that fits perfectly to your liking. Look for organic products only, and in a glass bottle that you store in the refrigerator once opened and then enjoy for months to come.

Amino Acid Pills vs. Powder: Which Is More Effective?

Amino acid pills vs. powdered supplements: why do you need amino acids, when do you need them, and which of these products works best? Discover the pros and cons of both delivery methods.

This article explores why you may need to take amino acid supplements, the difference between branched-chain amino acids and essential amino acids, plus the pros and cons of amino acid pills vs. powder supplements so you’ll know which one to choose for overall convenience and effectiveness.

Why Do You Need Amino Acids?

If you’re trying to lose weight or build muscle, amino acids could be the boost you’re waiting for. Why is that? Because while both can be accomplished with increased muscle mass, you cannot build muscle without all nine essential amino acids.

Your amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and protein is what you need for muscle growth. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are so-called because it’s essential that you ingest them—your body cannot make these amino acids on its own.

Your nine essential amino acids include: histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, threonine, and tryptophan. Without the proper amount of each of one, you won’t get protein synthesis for new muscle no matter how hard you work out, because your body simply doesn’t have the ingredients. It’s sort of like trying to make a cake with everything but flour, or trying to put together a jigsaw puzzle with the corner and side pieces missing. You can try, but you won’t get the desired result no matter how much time and effort you put in.

The Difference Between EAAs, Branched-Chain Amino Acids, and Other Protein Supplements

Many protein powders and amino acid supplements contain handfuls of amino acids, often the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which are valine, leucine, and isoleucine. For example, creatine is a type of protein found in dietary protein (animal meats) and produced by some of your nonessential amino acids, while whey protein contains all EAAs in one amount or another (though not always the optimal amount of each).

Taking these products as dietary supplements pre-, during, or post-workouts can help prevent muscle soreness, boost muscle protein synthesis, and aid in muscle recovery. They can even help prevent muscle tissue loss while you sleep. The fitness-minded often use casein protein supplements for just that, due to its slow digestion rate (though amino acid supplementation prevents catabolism while you sleep just as well, if not better).

People take amino acid supplements to prevent muscle damage during workouts, to repair and build new muscle, and to keep the muscle gains they’ve made even as they sleep.

Amino Acid Pills or Powder: Which Works Best?

So much of sports nutrition is counting, measuring, weighing, and timing: wouldn’t a pill or capsule be so much easier? Think about it: pre-workout, just take a pill; post-workout, just take another pill! It sounds almost too good to be true, and by the end of this in-depth explanation, you may agree that is indeed the case.

Let’s talk about the difference between powdered and pill forms of these essential nutrients, and which one works better for athletic performance, weight loss, and muscle building.

Amino acid pills vs. powders.

The Pros and Cons of Pre-Workout Amino Acid Pills

When deciding between amino acid pills and powders, use this pros and cons cheatsheet.

Pros

The upsides to pill or capsule EAA supplements are easy to imagine: they’re as simple to transport as vitamins, can be taken with minimal (if any) water requirements, and involve zero mixing. They’re time-savers, they’re convenient, and they come pre-measured. What could go wrong?

Cons

One of the biggest cons: proper dosages. The amount of capsules, soft gels, or pills you would have to take pre-workout to meet the amounts of amino acids used in clinical studies might not be as convenient as you think, especially if you’re supplementing as a professional athlete or bodybuilder. You just can’t fit 25 grams of protein into a half-gram pill.

Another con: the digestion time. A capsule or tablet has be to be digested once consumed, and not only does that require time and energy, but it also means that whatever fillers or gelatin that’s keeping the pill together is also getting ingested, when all you really want are your essential amino acids.

During particularly high-intensity workouts, it’s helpful to take EAAs before, during, and after workouts in different amounts, and it’s hard to get the timing right if you’re ingesting pills instead of powder. Not only that, all the time spent measuring powder isn’t avoided if you have to keep doing math on the dosage amounts of pills.

Long story short: some substances work well in pill form, like caffeine, but not so much a full host of essential amino acids.

The Pros and Cons of Pre-Workout Amino Acid Powder

Pros

Amino acid powders, whether you’re using a complete EAA supplement or a medley of different protein supplements, are faster acting, longer lasting, and don’t involve swallowing large, hard objects. Amino acid powder products can give you anywhere from 10-30 grams of active ingredients in one serving, and puts them to work ASAP as soon as you ingest them.

Cons

Those supplement powder containers can be awfully big sometimes, so much so that there have actually been multiple class-action lawsuits filed against some companies based on the size of their containers being too big for the product itself, with consumers finding them half or even a third full. You can’t be carting a container big enough to be a drum to the gym and back every day, nor is it always convenient to blend up a shake just before leaving the office to go work out. It would be nice to get the EAAs that can step up your lean muscle mass in pill form, but…the pros and cons weigh more heavily in the direction of choosing powdered supplements over pills.

Take A Powder…Literally

At the end of the day, creatine, whey, weight-gain, EAA, and BCAA supplements simply don’t work well in pill form; you just need so much more than a pill or capsule can deliver in the right window of time. It’s less a question of personal preference than it is a basic math equation. The powdered forms of these amino acid supplements are superior when it comes to all the key points of effectiveness, though it is fun to dream of a day when you can get perfectly enhanced exercise performance from one little pill.

L-Phenylalanine: Weight-Loss Solution?

Discover the uses of L-phenylalanine for skin and mood disorders, as well as what it can do to help you achieve weight loss. We’re also covering the possible side effects of supplementation, and where to find phenylalanine from dietary sources.

If you’re looking for proven ways to support weight loss, you may have come across L-phenylalanine, an essential amino acid in your body that is important for muscle development and skin health. L-phenylalanine weight-loss studies are newer to the field, and people are naturally curious: how can L-phenylalanine help you lose weight? Read on to find out, along with its potential side effects and the natural food sources of L-phenylalanine.

What Is L-Phenylalanine?

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, and one of the building blocks of protein and the muscles in your body. Phenylalanine is considered “essential” because you need it to function, but your body cannot synthesize enough of it independently, so it must be consumed either from food or via phenylalanine supplementation.

There are two forms of phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. They are very nearly identical, but with slightly different structures. It’s the L-form molecule that is gained from foods and used to make new proteins in the body, while the D-form of phenylalanine may be used in various medical applications. L-phenylalanine can be found in both animal and plant sources of food.

Above the role phenylalanine plays in protein synthesis, it’s also important for producing other molecules in the body, several of which are important for signal transmission. Phenylalanine has also been the subject of clinical research on skin disorders (vitiligo), pain, and depression.

A note of caution: Phenylalanine is considered dangerous for those with phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder which causes phenylalanine levels to build up. For more information on possible side effects, skip to the end of this article.

Phenylalanine for Normal Functioning

Phenylalanine is principally needed for protein creation, and proteins are not just located in your muscles. Many proteins are at work in your blood, brain, and internal organs—basically all throughout your body. Even more valuable, phenylalanine is needed to make other important molecules, including:

  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine: These are the molecules that give you the “fight-or-flight” response to danger and stress.
  • TyrosineThis fellow amino acid directly results from phenylalanine, and is used to make protein or converted (if in excess) to the other molecules in this list.
  • DopamineThis molecule allows us to feel pleasure and happiness, and also plays a vital role in the development of our memory and learning skills. Basically every happy memory you have, you can thank dopamine for. 

Without proper functioning of these molecules, your health will be at risk, and phenylalanine is needed to make them. Not only that, medical application of phenylalanine can help treat specific medical conditions.

Phenylalanine for Certain Medical Conditions

Scientific studies have been performed to explore phenylalanine as a treatment for certain medical conditions. For instance, phenylalanine may help treat vitiligo, a skin condition that causes pigmentation loss and the appearance of blotchy patches on the body. Phenylalanine supplements have been studied in conjunction with ultraviolet (UV) light exposure to treat this pigmentation disorder.

Phenylalanine’s ability to produce dopamine has been applied to instances of depression, which is a mood disorder often associated with dopamine dysfunction. Both L- and D-forms of phenylalanine have been studied for treating depression. According to a study published in the Journal of Neural Transmission, of 12 participants with depression, two-thirds showed improvement after receiving a mixture of L- and D-phenylalanine.

Alongside vitiligo treatment and anti-depressant application, phenylalanine has also been studied for use in the following conditions.

  • Parkinson’s diseaseThere is evidence that phenylalanine could be beneficial in treating the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, though more research is required.
  • Alcohol withdrawalPhenylalanine, along with some fellow amino acids, has shown indications that it could be useful in treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
  • Chronic painD-phenylalanine may help with pain relief in certain instances (like low back pain), though so far research results are still spotty and not all of the studies produced results with statistical significance.

L-phenylalanine supplements for weight loss. Do they work?

L-Phenylalanine: Weight-Loss Applications

As a dietary supplement, L-phenylalanine may help with weight loss in a couple of ways. First the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which is stimulated by L-phenylalanine, may act as an appetite suppressant and thus lead to lower calorie consumption throughout the day. It’s been difficult so far for scientists to pin down whether the consumption of more L-phenylalanine will directly impact CCK production, but it is a weight-loss link that is being explored.

L-phenylalanine’s direct impact on dopamine via L-tyrosine’s weight-loss influence has more evidence to back it up. Because dopamine is responsible for feelings of pleasure (the kind you may get from eating your favorite dessert, for instance), regulating dopamine levels can be beneficial in the treatment of obesity. If L-phenylalanine can be used to keep your tyrosine and thus dopamine levels high while you go on a diet (and cut your usual dopamine supply), it may help reduce food cravings and lead to more sustainable weight loss.

Phenylalanine is also considered a ketogenic amino acid along with tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, threonine, and lysine and leucine (which are exclusively ketogenic, as opposed to the glucogenic amino acids). Phenylalanine is a switch-hitter, and can operate both as a glucogenic (for synthesizing glucose, or sugar) or ketogenic (for synthesizing ketone bodies, or fat burners). Those looking to start a ketogenic diet to lose weight may find amino acid supplementation all the more useful in achieving fast and healthy weight loss.

Possible Side Effects of Phenylalanine Supplementation

It’s “generally recognized as safe” to take L-phenylalanine according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). And various studies suggest no adverse side effects reported for supplementation within 23–45 milligrams per pound of body weight. Still there are still some people who should not take L-phenylalanine.

Pregnant women are advised to avoid it, as are those with the disorder PKU who are genetically unable to properly process phenylalanine and usually are directed to eat a low-protein diet throughout their lives.

For otherwise healthy individuals, phenylalanine is still essential, and can easily be gained from eating foods high in phenylalanine. For those interested in taking it as a nutritional supplement, consult a health care professional for medical advice before adding it to your routine.

Foods High in Phenylalanine

For food sources of phenylalanine, you can choose from both animal and plant products.

  • Animal sources of phenylalanine: Eggs, certain meats like seafood (cod), and Parmesan cheese.
  • Plant sources of phenylalanine: Soy products, seaweed, nuts, and seeds (particularly squash and pumpkin seeds).

Eating a nutritious variety of protein-rich foods should effortlessly provide you with plenty of phenylalanine, as well as the other essential amino acids.

Phenomenal Phenylalanine

L-phenylalanine is the essential amino acid that can help regulate depression, pain, skin disorders, and weight loss if applied properly as a supplement. Otherwise gaining phenylalanine from a normal diet is essential for your overall health and well-being.